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198

SYRIAN ARCHBISHOP.

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himself wears the decoration of Mejedie, the first ever conferred on a Christian. Three Papal Syrian priests were present, who had been to Rome, and assisted in the entertainment. They spoke Italian.

“Then the son of the Pasha sent his Arab horse for us to see. A large iron-gray, splendidly formed, strong, a noble creature from the Shummur tribe.

“Afterward call upon the Syrian Archbishop, a venerable man with a long flowing beard, intelligent and affable; received us with great courtesy; says he makes the Bible the only rule of faith, preaches from the Word of God alone; read us one of his sermons in Syriac, beautifully written, on the new heart—Except a man be born again, he cannot enter the kingdom of heaven.' If a sinner came to inquire the way of salvation he would shew him the Word of God. *Thy word is a light to my feet,' &c. He seems thoroughly evangelical in his views, and wishes to publish them in a book. The Word of God is like a net to catch sinners, and pull them out of their sins. Tell him we hope he will become the Luther of the Syrian church-one-third of his people sympathise with him in these spiritual views—we must walk by the Word of God. The heavens and the earth pass away, but the word of the Lord endureth for ever. He is a thorough Bible man. Tell him I am glad to hear that he founds his faith on the Word of God. I ask him if he wishes his people to have the Bible in their families, to read and learn the way of salvation. He would rejoice in it, and he himself will distribute and sell the Bible to all who desire it. He wishes Syriac, Arac, and Arabic in Syriac character (gershuni). He prayed that himself and the missionaries may all be one in their spiritual labours for their people, and

DR GRANT'S HOUSE.

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that the time might soon come when they would preach in each other's pulpits, and partake of the communion of Christ together around the table of Christ. Immediately after he wishes the Dr Haskell to prescribe for him.

“Then call to visit the house of Dr Grant, now occupied by a Syrian family. The two women are at home, one of them knew Dr Grant. He had healed her of a disease. The Lord have mercy on him! The other was very beautiful, and dressed in a profusion of gold ornaments, nose jewels, and bracelets and anklets. They were exceedingly polite. Saw the room in which Dr Grant died, looking out on the Tigris, with stained glass windows above. (May our last end be like his ! See the man who saw his death-scene.)

“Here is a beautiful view from the house-top over the city. Mr Laurie and Layard afterward lived here.

“Then call upon Mrs Russan, visit the Protestant school of twenty-seven Syrian boys. Answer Bible questions, and one of them read from the Testament very fluently-nine years old. Mrs Marsh and Mrs Lobdell have a meeting one day in a week, in which the Scriptures are read and explained to them, and prayer is offered; the average number of twenty attend. Also a Bible class on Sunday of fourteen members. There is also a Bible society organised among the church members, appropriating a fund of a hundred piastres a-year for distributing the Scriptures to the poor.

“Ride outside the city walls at the hour of sunset to see the (American) missionary burial-ground. Visit the graves of Drs Grant and Lobdell, Mr Laurie, Mrs Mitchell and Williams, Mr Hinsdale, and the children of the missionaries who have died here. It is beautifully situated

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200

ARCHBISHOP BEHNAN.

on a slightly elevated ground, one mile from the city, in sight of the gardens, river Tigris, Jonah's tomb, and the snow-crowned mountains of Koordistan in the distance. Blessed are the dead that die in the Lord !

“ THURSDAY, 13th. "Have a very pleasant call from the Syrian Archbishop Behnan (Maphrian, see Mosheim). He wishes our assistance to secure justice to one of his Syrian people. We tell him there is an Evangelical Alliance at Constantinople, formed for this very object, and we would be glad to have bim a member. Read to him the list of officers, the Dutch ambassador, Bishop Gobat, Mr Nicolayson. He replies, it is very good, and he will think of it. He says the Papists have much opposed his work. I answer, they have also opposed us in circulating the Bible. No Papists are members of this Alliance, only those who receive the Bible as their rule of faith. He

says,

Woe to him that standeth alone, (see Jeremiah.) We are one if we are born of the Holy Spirit, one in Christ Jesus. Tell him our desire to introduce the Bible into his school. He will be very thankful to have them. A very excellent, evangelical, intelligent, and interesting archbishop of the (Oriental) Syrian church.

“In the evening have a meeting of the teachers of schools, and the boys who go from house to house to teach the natives, both men and women, to read, and instruct them in the Scriptures. A chapter is read in the Bible, questions asked, and an appropriate prayer offered by one of the teachers, and then we both addressed them on the importance of their work.

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“FRIDAY, 14th. "In the morning the kiljah of the Pasha calls. He is a very affable and courteous man.

Tell him that my name originally signified Richter, Judge, cadi in Turkish, and in English it is Righter (Daha Dogree). He says, we love you for yourself, and still more for your name. I ask him for his name, and its signification. Ismidt (glory). Tell him I am happy to see that the glory of his name has not departed. His ancestors won glory, and mine justice and right. He was a fine specimen of a complimentary Turkish courtier.

Engages to send us a bourneti and cavasses for our journey in the mountains.

“Then we arrange with our katergio. After we had finished our arrangements, to our great surprise, one of these rough muleteers burst forth with a volley of English words that perfectly amazed us.

“Ride out with the ladies just at sunset and golden twilight. The evening star, the purity of the western horizon bounding the desert afar, and Jupiter brilliant in the blue sky, formed a scene of picturesque beauty I shall never forget, more like heaven than a scene of earth.

“In the evening the Syrian archbishop sends us his servant to bear his Christian salutation, and a sermon on the Word of God, saying, that his mind has been spiritually stirred up by our visit, and he is more desirous than ever to be zealously engaged in the cause of Christ. The discourse was translated to us, and was an excellent scriptural sermon. We wrote his grace an epistle in behalf of Evangelical Christians in England and America, and requesting a copy of the sermon for publication ;

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WALLS OF NINEVEH.

also the archbishop's views on the all important doctrine of justification by faith.'

“ SATURDAY, 15th. “In the morning we ride across the floating-bridge on the Tigris, and then gallop on and around the walls of Nineveh. We set out at the tomb of Jonah, and riding upon the top of the wall, we came to the angle of the wall that commands a view down the river, at the south, toward Nimroud. Then we rode on, passing by the gateways at the sides, and came to an angle on the east that looks toward the snow-crowned mountains of Koordistan. The walls are still twenty feet high, and steep, wide enough for a horse to gallop on the top, though built of sun-dried bricks, and subject for two thousand years to the action of the elements and the hand of man; at the bottom they are at least forty feet wide. Passing northward, we observed at the side, traces of an outer wall, forming a wide trench between. We also distinctly marked gateways at intervals upon this side. In the centre a river flows directly through the city. On the northern angle there is a large mound, and also a palace gateway at the west, where huge winged bulls were found and sculptured slabs. The view from this point is beautiful, up the winding river toward the distant mountains, as well to Mosul and the desert stretching far beyond. Then we rode to Koyunjuk, filled with excavations, and returned to our point of starting, Nebby Jonas.

“The river originally, in all probability, flowed near the walls, and the gates were more frequent on the river side. The walls are now ploughed and sowed with grain, and Nineveh is also a ploughed field, and used as a place for spreading nets to catch birds. It was most interesting

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