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of the Pasha had one, and his own were the best in Mosul.

"He invited us, in the court, to see his, a noble animal of full blood and breeding, whereupon he gave us the favour of riding her to visit ancient Nineveh, and he himself volunteered to accompany us, as he was acquainted with Mr Layard and his excavations. We rode out in grand style, six in our party. Crossing the floating bridge over the Tigris, we galloped across the plain and along the line of the ancient walls which are distinctly traceable to the mound of one of the palace gateways. Here we dismounted and descended into the trenches under ground. I was amused to find here one of the largest humanheaded winged bulls standing in its original site at the entrance of a temple. And near by was a full-length figure of a priest, holding in his hand the sacred cone in offering sacrifice to the deity before him. Both were cut in solid stone, and were of huge dimensions. On the opposite side stands another of similar size, to guard the porch of the temple. Then we walk in and examine the sides of the room. Slabs are inlaid, exceedingly interesting. We then walked to the exterior top of the mound, and traced the line of the ancient walls of the city seven miles in circuit. Yonder is the buried ruin of the temple palace of Koyunjuk, and beyond, the mound and tomb of the prophet Jonah, over which a splendid Moslem mosque is now erected, and a little Moslem village built around it, which has not been excavated underneath. Descending, we mounted our horses and galloped within the city walls. It is now a ploughed field; as the common houses were of sun-dried bricks, all was consumed, and crumbled to ruins. Then we came to the palace mound of Koyun

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juk. This has been extensively excavated, and here the most valuable articles were found. We descend into the trenches, and come to the grand hall of the palace; here were splendid column pedestals, a finely wrought slab of pavement, and slabs and remains of ancient art and skill extending far. Then we walked over the mound, saw various shafts and trenches, and at length descended and came to another temple-four huge bulls at the gateway; one of them at the side covered with cuneiform inscriptions, and in the hall slabs of battle and triumphal scenes, attacking a fortified town, casting up a mound, batteringrams, hurling stones; and another represents ancient Tyre, palm-trees, fish, a man carrying a banner, &c.; another represents a hill country, &c. Also we see the instruments of music played,-cymbals, tambourine, and harp. We could have wandered a whole day here. Next we rode to the village of Nebby Jonas. Ascend to the Mosque. The dignified old Moslem admits us to the Mosque. It is elegantly built in a dome style, and richly carpeted within. We walk to the tomb of the prophet underneath a small dome; here we look through a grated window, strung with many-coloured pilgrim rags. Then we ask to enter within to the tomb itself. After some

little hesitation, they light their long sacred candles, and unlock the heavy door. Solemnly they advance praying to Allah, and bow on the knee as we come in front of the tomb. It is richly carpeted with Persian carpet. We descended six steps and walked around the tomb. It is covered with rich green silk, and above a splendid gold cloth, given by the Pasha of Busru. Then we came into the court of the Mosque, and ascend the beautiful glazed brick minaret. The view was magnificent, in the clear

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sunlight, of the ancient city; its walls and gateway, towers, temples-the winding Tigris stretching afar-the gardens opposite-the flocks and Arab tents, and the mountains of the Koordistan rising majestically behind-a scene of vivid interest I shall never forget. Then we descend, mount our horses and gallop over the plain and across the river to Mosul.

"Make a pleasant evening call upon the French consul, at his house a good specimen of French politeness. Learn the news-political crisis coming on, and the prospect of another Congress at Paris.

"Have a beautiful moonlight view from the house-top of Mr Marsh. The pure and mellow light shedding over the scene. Venus just setting in the west, and Jupiter shining clear in the sky, like the views of moonlight scene from the house-top in Jerusalem. Talk late in the evening with Mr Marsh on various interesting matters.

"WEDNESDAY, 12th.

"Call first upon our friend, the Pasha's defterdar, a Christian. He receives us in a most cordial manner, entertained us with narghile, sherbet, coffee, and preserves, &c., in Oriental style. Then he introduced his wife, a finelooking, tall woman, splendidly dressed in figured silk skirt, gold embroidered vest, golden necklace, and golden head-dress, inwrought with precious stones. Express our pleasure at seeing a native Christian lady in a social call at Mosul, far in the East.

"We call our wives in America our better half, but Moslems degrade them. Thinks a Moslem would be killed by the people for becoming Christian, but not by the government. The authorities would execute the murderers. He

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SYRIAN ARCHBISHOP.

himself wears the decoration of Mejedie, the first ever conferred on a Christian. Three Papal Syrian priests were present, who had been to Rome, and assisted in the entertainment. They spoke Italian.

"Then the son of the Pasha sent his Arab horse for us

to see. A large iron-gray, splendidly formed, strong, a

noble creature from the Shummur tribe.

"Afterward call upon the Syrian Archbishop, a venerable man with a long flowing beard, intelligent and affable; received us with great courtesy; says he makes the Bible the only rule of faith, preaches from the Word of God alone; read us one of his sermons in Syriac, beautifully written, on the new heart-Except a man be born again, he cannot enter the kingdom of heaven.' If a sinner came to inquire the way of salvation he would shew him the Word of God. Thy word is a light to my feet,' &c. He seems thoroughly evangelical in his views, and wishes to publish them in a book. The Word of God is like a net to catch sinners, and pull them out of their sins. Tell him we hope he will become the Luther of the Syrian church-one-third of his people sympathise with him in these spiritual views-we must walk by the Word of God. The heavens and the earth pass away, but the word of the Lord endureth for ever. He is a thorough Bible man. Tell him I am glad to hear that he founds his faith on the Word of God. I ask him if he wishes his people to have the Bible in their families, to read and learn the way of salvation. He would rejoice in it, and he himself will distribute and sell the Bible to all who desire it. He wishes Syriac, Arac, and Arabic in Syriac character (gershuni). He prayed that himself and the missionaries may all be one in their spiritual labours for their people, and

DR GRANT'S HOUSE.

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that the time might soon come when they would preach in each other's pulpits, and partake of the communion of Christ together around the table of Christ. Immediately after he wishes the Dr Haskell to prescribe for him.

"Then call to visit the house of Dr Grant, now occupied by a Syrian family. The two women are at home, one of them knew Dr Grant. He had healed her of a disease. The Lord have mercy on him! The other was very beautiful, and dressed in a profusion of gold ornaments, nose jewels, and bracelets and anklets. They were exceedingly polite. Saw the room in which Dr Grant died, looking out on the Tigris, with stained glass windows above. (May our last end be like his! See the man who saw his death-scene.)

"Here is a beautiful view from the house-top over the city. Mr Laurie and Layard afterward lived here.

"Then call upon Mrs Russan, visit the Protestant school of twenty-seven Syrian boys. Answer Bible questions, and one of them read from the Testament very fluently-nine years old. Mrs Marsh and Mrs Lobdell have a meeting one day in a week, in which the Scriptures are read and explained to them, and prayer is offered; the average number of twenty attend. Also a Bible class on Sunday of fourteen members. There is also a Bible society organised among the church members, appropriating a fund of a hundred piastres a-year for distributing the Scriptures to the poor.

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Ride outside the city walls at the hour of sunset to see the (American) missionary burial-ground. Visit the graves of Drs Grant and Lobdell, Mr Laurie, Mrs Mitchell and Williams, Mr Hinsdale, and the children of the missionaries who have died here. It is beautifully situated

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