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river. It is beautiful in the distance, under the clear sunlight of an Oriental sky. The shores are clothed with green; the river flows with a broad and majestic current ; the walls rise grandly in front, and I greatly enjoy the scene as we float on quietly toward both the ancient and modern city. See several of the native women on the banks of the river, their long black hair flowing down their shoulders in graceful style. The shores are also planted with watermelons that are just gathered for the market.
"The city now stands out fully before us with its walls, battlements, minarets, and towers, in stately Oriental style. Sail beside the city walls-count 300 women washing and beating clothes by the river side. Come to anchor near the bridge of boats; are received by a mingled crowd of turbaned natives; a guide directs us through the muddy streets, like Stamboul, towards the house of the American missionaries; meet Mr Marsh and Dr Haskell coming to meet us on horseback-insist upon our mounting and riding-streets, coffee-shops, quite like Eastern cities. Arrive at the mission house-large court with a large tree and singing birds in the centre-cordial welcome; see Mrs Marsh, and Mrs Lobdue, and the children. Ride out upon the plain outside of the city; quite like Egypt in the sky and view, and mild, mellow light. Excellent Arab horses; much enjoy the ride, also a fine walk on the house-top, and view over the city. Have a delightful social prayer-meeting with the missionaries in the evening.
"Am awakened by the cheerful singing of birds in the court. This morning see Kos-ma-chiel, who was formerly
a Catholic Nestorian priest, and was in Rome five months, where he became a Protestant.
"Attend the Bible class in the chapel; fifty or sixty were present, seated on their knees in Eastern style— venerable, fine-looking men wearing large round turbans. I address them in behalf of the Bible cause-visit to Egypt, the Crimea, and the Kuzelbash. They listen with much interest, and then come forward to shake me by the hand and thank the American Bible Society for sending them the Bible and gospel of salvation. It was an impressive scene as these Syrians, descendants of the old Assyrians, in sight of the ruins of ancient Nineveh, thus expressed their gratitude for receiving the Word of God at our hands.
“I was much pleased with the neat chapel and intelligent congregation. In the evening have a meeting for organising a branch of the Evangelical Alliance. After hearing of the Turkey branch of the Alliance, and discussing the matter with much interest, they unanimously and cordially expressed their desire to form a branch, and thus be linked with Christians in all parts of the East and the world. It was a meeting of much interest. They cheerfully came forward and signed their names in Arabic to our rules and regulations-fourteen members, all who could write.
“The women wear a black mask upon their heads, which, when it is drawn, entirely conceals their face.
“Another very delightful morning. Ride on horseback to the Pasha's palace. Very pleasant reception by the Pasha in his audience-room, overlooking the Tigris.
Hamdi Pasha, a fine-looking gentleman of the modern school, heartily shook hands with us, and bade us welcome. He had not often the honour of a visit from English and Americans entertains us with chebouks, preserves, and coffee in Oriental style. He hoped that a friendly intercourse with each other would increase-it would be to our mutual benefit. He remarked that now Mussulmans, and Christians, and Jews were becoming brothers. My friend said we have one Father. 'Yes,' he replied, 'Allah was Lord of all the earth; not only the God of the mountains but also of the plains.' I remarked his views were the same as the Sultan's, as declared in the Hatti humayoun. 'Yes,' said he, 'the Firman was read in Arabic and Turkish in the grand court of the palace to all the people, and it would be his object to have it fully carried out.' He greatly rejoiced in it. In comparing the present with the past, great advance was made. The meaning of the word Koort was originally wolf, and it is now dog, and he hoped they would soon make it sheep. He pressed us to take a guard of his soldiers that we might pass with honour through the country. He rose as we left and took leave of us with friendly salutations, 'salam safa guelduig, khosh guelduig,'—(welcome, much welcome.) He would do us the favour of returning our visit. Then we call upon the Deftudar Kyiah, who received us in a similar cordial manner, entertained us in the same style, and expressed the same enlightened views in regard to English and Americans. The Pasha had been six years from Stamboul, and his secretary the same. We were greatly delighted with our visit thus far, in the interior. Call to visit the Bible depôt, at the large new khan of the English consulate, near the two principal gates of the city.
Bibles in Arabic, Syriac, ancient and modern-a very public place, and well known in the city. Copies of the Scriptures sold during the last year: 217 books, of which 34 were Scriptures and parts of Scriptures. Call upon Mrs Rassam, wife of the English consul-fine house, large court, garden in the centre, slabs from Nineveh in the pavement, and beautiful sedab or alabaster underground apartment below. Then visit the dispensary and see Dr Haskell in his labours of love, prescribing for the crowd of patients of all classes, Moslems, Christians, and Jews, women, men, and children, who daily come to him. They average forty or fifty each day. The system is first to preach the gospel to them, and then give them medicine for their diseases-Arabs from the desert, Koords from the mountains, Moslems and Christians from the city.
"Mosul has a population of 45,000—Moslems 36,000 ; Christians 7,500; 1,500 Jews; about two-fifths ancient Syrians or Jacobites; two-fifths Chaldeans or Papal Nestorians; one-fifth Papal Syrians; 180 enrolled in the Protestant community; fifteen church members; attendance at service, average, fifty-five; language used entirely Arabic. A Bible class of twenty or thirty; two boys' schools, numbering sixty pupils; three natives are employed in going from house to house to teach the men and women to read the Bible in the families; have three preachersJeremiah Shemmas, deacon, Kos Machiel, (formerly a Papal Nestorian priest,) Behnan, from the seminary of Aleih; three teachers; have three out-stations at Jezerch, a village near Nahauan, where the Nestorian priest and his people are Protestant, numbering 100. He teaches the people to read the Bible.
"Spend a very pleasant evening with the French consul,
his adopted daughter, and Mrs R; quite like an American evening party, save the variety of languages spoken, English, French, Italian, Turkish, Arabic, and Greek.
"After the rain it is mild and genial this morning. This morning the Pasha, according to appointment, calls to visit us, accompanied by his defterdar and an interpreter. He brings his own chibouque and fingaw, says that one American friend has brought him two others, and he is now rich. I tell him that I hope the ships sailing from America on the chart before him will bring him many more. He smiles approbation, and says that he felt in his heart that there was something good near him, but he was not aware of so great an affair so close beside him. He remarked that some physicians give a medicine to cure one disease, others give a medicine to heal and renew the system. So a good government should seek for gradual reforms. I remarked, his views entirely coincided with the ideas of the Sultan, in the Hatti Sheriff. I told him that we were so much pleased with his liberal sentiments, we would be happy to present him with a copy of the Bible, that he might learn what we in England and America believed. He expressed his thanks, and said it would be valuable in two particulars; it would always remind him of his true friend; and it would be good for instruction, as being the Book of God. He was exceedingly affable and gracious—remarkably intelligent, and ready at repartee a good specimen of an active-minded Turk.
The conversation continued for a half hour more, and he took his leave in Oriental style. His secretary, when we inquired with regard to fine Arab horses, said, the son