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APPENDIX.

NOTE A.-See page 6.

In the kingdom of Siam, which is situated in a large vale between two ridges of mountains, its river Meinham, that is, The Mother of Waters, is celebrated among Oriental rivers. The trees on the banks of this river are finely illuminated with swarms of fire-flies, which emit or conceal their light as uniformly as if it proceeded from a machine of the

most exact contrivance.

Though this morceau of natural history would be suffi cient for the present purpose, yet, for its curiosity, it may not be uninteresting to subjoin the account of these beautiful insects, ás related by Dr. Shaw in his Zoology, vol. vi. part 1. page 144, &c.

"The Fulgora Lanternaria, or Peruvian Lantern Fly, is undoubtedly one of the most curious of insects: it is of a very considerable size, measuring nearly three inches and a half from the tip of the front to that of the tail, and 'about five inches and a half from wing's end to wing's end, when expanded: the body is of a lengthened oval shape, roundish or subcylindric, and divided into several rings or segments: the head is nearly equal to the length of the rest of the animal, and is oval, inflated, and bent slightly upwards: the ground-colour is an elegant yellow, with a strong tinge of green in some parts, and marked with numerous bright

nut-brown variegations in the form of stripes and spots: the wings are very large, of a yellow colour, most elegantly varied with brown undulations and spots, and the lower pair are decorated by a very large eye-shaped spot on the middle of each, the iris or border of the spot being red, and the centre half red and half semi-transparent white: the head or lantern is pale yellow, with longitudinal red stripes. This beautiful insect is a native of Surinam and many other parts of South America, and during the night diffuses so strong a phosphoric splendor from its head or lantern that it may be employed for the purpose of a candle or torch; and it is said, that three or four of the insects tied to the top of a stick, are frequently used by travellers for that purpose. The celebrated Madam Merian, in her work on the insects of Surinam, gives a very agreeable account of the surprise into which she was thrown by the first view of the flashes of light proceeding from these insects. 'The Indians once brought me,' says she, before I knew that they shone by night, a number of these lantern flies, which I shut up in a large wooden box. In the night they made such a noise that I awoke in a fright, and ordered a light to be brought, not knowing from whence the noise proceeded. As soon as we found that it came from the box, we opened it; but were still much more alarmed, and let it fall to the ground in a fright, at seeing a flame of fire come out of it; and as many animals as came out, so many flames of fire appeared. When we found this to be the case, we recovered from our fright, and again collected the insects, highly admiring their splendid appearance.'

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"Dr. Darwin, in a note to some lines relative to luminous insects, in his beautiful poem of the Loves of the Plants, makes Madam Merian affirm that she drew and finished her figure of the insect by its own light. On examination, how

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ever, I cannot find the least authority for this declaration on the part of Madam Merian, who relates only what is above stated, with the observation, that the light of one of the insects is sufficient to read a common newspaper by. It may be proper to add, that this celebrated lady falls into a mistake in supposing that a species of Cicada, which she represents on the same place with the lantern fly, was its larva; and that it gradually was transformed into the Fulgora. This information, indeed, she merely gives as the popular report, but at the same time takes the liberty of representing the insect in its supposed half-complete state, with the head of the Fulgora, and the wings and body of the Cicada.

"I cannot conclude the description of this species, without giving due praise to the exquisite representation of Roësel, who has engraved it both with its wings closed and expanded. Degeer observes, that the beautiful colours with which Roësel's figures are adorned, were not perceptible either in the specimens examined by himself, or in those described by Reaumur. In the Leverian Museum, however, are a fine pair of these insects, which, though now somewhat faded, at their first introduction fully justified the colouring of Roësel and Merian, and left no doubt of the richly variegated appearance of the animal in its living state."

EXTRACTS FROM PLUTARCH.

See Note B.-Page 45.

Of Demosthenes.

Plutarch says, "We are told, when the speeches of Demosthenes had been ill received, and he was going home with his head covered, and in the greatest distress, Satyrus, the player, who was an àoquaintance of his, followed, and went in with him. Demosthenes lamented to him, "That, though he was the most laborious of all the orators, and had almost sacrificed his health to that application, yet he could gain no favour with the people; but drunken seamen, and other unlettered persons, were heard; and kept the rostrum, while he was entirely disregarded." 'You say true,' answered Satyrus, but I will soon provide a remedy, if you will repeat to me some speech in Euripides or Sophocles.' When Démosthenes had done, Satyrus pronounced the same speech; and he did it with such propriety of action, and so much in character, that it appeared to the orator quite a different passage. He now understood so well how much grace and dignity action adds to the best oration, that he thought it a small matter to premeditate and compose, though with the utmost care, if the pronunciation and propriety of gesture were not attended to. Upon this he built himself a subterraneous study, which remained to our times; thither he repaired every day to form his action and exercise his voice, and he would often stay there for two or three months

together, shaving one side of his head, that, if he should happen to be ever so desirous of going abroad, the shame of appearing in that condition might keep him in."

"Hence it was concluded, that he was not a man of much genius, and that all his eloquence was the effect of labour: a strong proof of this seemed to be, that he was seldom heard to speak any thing extempore; and though the people often called upon him by name, as he sat in the assembly, to speak to the point debated, he would not do it unless he came prepared; for this many of the orators ridiculed him. Pytheas, in particular, told him that all his arguments smelled of the lamp. Demosthenes retorted sharply upon him; Yes, indeed; but your lamp and mine, my friend, are not conscious to the same labours.' Eratosthenes says, that in his extemporaneous harangues, he often spoke as from a supernatural impulse; and Demetrius tells us, that in an address to the people, like a man inspired, he once uttered this oath in verse;

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By earth, by all her fountains, streams, and floods.'

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"It is said, that a man came to him one day, and desired him to be his advocate against a person from whom he had suffered by assault. Not you, indeed,' said Demosthenes, 'you have suffered no such thing.'-'What!' said the man, raising his voice, have I not received those blows?" Ay, now,' replied Demosthenes, you do speak like a person that has been injured.' So much, in his opinion, do the tone of voice and the action contribute to gain the speaker credit in what he affirms.

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“When a rascal, surnamed Chalchus, attempted to get up on his late studies and long watching, he said, 'I know my lamp offends thee; but you need not wonder, my coun

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