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answer breathed a determined spirit of hostility, and was written in a style of arrogance and abuse which was unexampled. He went still farther, he assembled a council at Rome, consisting of all the neighbouring bishops, which issued a decree, not only declarative of the lawfulness of worshipping images, but commanding them to be worshipped, and condemning, as heretics, all who did not worship them, or who should presume to teach that they were not to be worshipped. The emperor, indignant at this assumption of power, seized on the rich patrimonies of the Roman church in Sicily and Calabria, tore from the Roman see the provinces of East Illyrium, and subjected the whole to the patriarch of Constantinople. By this conduct he inflicted the most severe wound in the heart of the pope, but before he had time to ripen any scheme of revenge, he died in 731, after he had sat in the papal chair near seventeen years. From the details of his actions already given, it appears that Gregory had a zeal for exalting the power and dignity of his see; he was besides arrogant and superstitious. As an author there are fifteen of his "Letters," and a "Memoir," transmitted to his legates in Bavaria, containing instructions for their guidance in managing the ecclesiastical affairs of that country. These are inserted in the sixth volume of the "Collectio Conciliorum;" he was author also of a liturgy, which was printed, with a Greek version, at Paris in 1595.
GREGORY III., pope, was a Syrian by birth, and became a presbyter of the Roman church. He is said to have been eminent in learning for his time; skilful as an expositor of Scripture; and much admired as an eloquent and impressive preacher. Upon the death of Gregory II., he was unanimously chosen his successor by the Roman people and clergy. He had no sooner taken possession of his see, than he declared himself a determined supporter of the worship of images. He expended immense sums on the purchase of pictures and statues, with which he filled the churches at Rome, and encouraged the people in the daily, worship of them; he also caused relics to be brought from all parts to Rome, where he built a magnificent oratory for their reception and worship, appointing them an appropriate service, and monks who were maintained at the expense of his see to perform it. Gregory laboured to bring back the emperor Leo to the mother church, but to no purpose. Leo was a determined opposer of the pope's images, and these disputes caused disturbances in the west. The emperor prepared to reduce the pope and the Romans to obedience by force. For this purpose, in the year 734, he fitted out a formidable fleet, which, as soon as it had entered the Adriatic gulf, was encountered by a violent storm, by which the greatest part of the fleet was entirely destroyed, and the emperor's design quite defeated. Upon this event, the Romans, at the instigation of
the pope, withdrew from all subjection to the emperor, and formed themselves into a republic, in which they were governed by magistrates appointed by their own authority, under the pope, who was their head. From this time to the year 740, the pope and people of Rome seem to have acted independently of the emperor, without any molestation. At this time, however, Luitprand, king of the Lombards, whom Gregory had offended, overran and ravaged the whole country, and afterwards laid siege to the capital. In this extremity, Gregory had recourse to the celebrated Charles Martel, who at that time ruled France with an absolute sway, under the title of Mayor of the Palace. The pope agreed, on Charles affording him relief, that himself and the Roman people should solemnly renounce their allegiance to the emperor, as an avowed heretic; that they should acknowledge Charles as their protector, and confer on him the consular dignity; Charles agreed to these conditions, on which the Lombards found it prudent to raise the siege of Rome, and retire within their own dominions. Gregory did not live to enjoy the fruits of his policy, which materially contributed to the separation of the Italian provinces from the Grecian empire, as he died in the latter end of 741, after a pontificate of between ten and eleven years. Seven "Letters" of this pope are extant in the fourth volume of the "Collect. Concil."
GERMANUS I, patriarch of Constantinople, was the son of a patrician named Justinian, who had been put to death by the emperor Constantine Pogonatus, who cruelly ordered Germanus to be deprived of his manhood. He was made bishop of Cyzicum, and in 715, elevated to the patriarchate. He was a zealous defender of image-worship, for which he was degraded in a council held at Constantinople in 730. He died about ten years after. He wrote De Sex Synodis Ecumenisis, &c.
ST. BIRINUS, a priest of Rome, who in 634, was sent by pope Honorius to promulgate the gospel among the idolaters in Britain, and was afterwards ordained bishop. Birinus landed in the kingdom of the West Saxons, and baptised king Cynegilsus, and also many of his subjects. St. Birimus fixed his see at Dercis, now Dorchester, in Oxfordshire, in the windows of which beautiful church are still some remains of painting relative to the history of his mission. He built and consecrated many churches, and had great success in his mission. He died about the year 650. November 29th is his day in the calendar. He was buried first at Dorchester, but his remains were afterwards translated to Winchester.
EUGENIUS, bishop of Toledo, was attached to the monastic life, but compelled, by order of the prince, to accept of the episcopal dignity in the year 646. He filled that see several years, and made a figure at the councils of Toledo, which were held in the years 653, 655, 656. He was author of a
treatise "On the Trinity," and two books on miscellaneous subjects. He revived and improved Dracontius's work on the creation of the world, which was published at Paris, together with his "Opuscula," in the year 1619.
ST. MAXIMUS, an abbot and confessor, was of a noble family of Constantinople, and distinguished himself by his zeal against the Monothelites, for which he was thrown into prison, and died there, Aug. 13, 662. He wrote a commentary on the books attributed to Dionysius the Areopagite, and several other works, of which an edition has been published by Father Combesis in Latin, with notes.
ALEXANDER, patriarch of Antioch A.D. 685, was the last in that see for upwards of 400 years.
LANDRI, bishop of Paris, was a man of unbounded charity and eminent piety. He founded the hospital called Hotel Dieu, and died in 660.
ST. JULIAN, archbishop of Toledo, in Spain, was a man of learning and piety. He is said to have been of Jewish descent. He died in 690, esteemed as the most learned ornament of the church in his time, and highly commended for his piety, virtue and amiable manners. His works are, A Treatise against the Jews, Testamentum XII. Prophetarum, Prognostica Futuri Seculi, Historia Wambæ.
ANDREW, surnamed of Crete. He has left commentaries on some books of Scripture, and sermons. Pere Combesis gave an edition of them, with a Latin translation and notes, together with the works of St. Amphilocus and Methodicus. He died in 720.
THEODORE, of Tarsus, a monk of that city, was ordained bishop by pope Vitalian, and being sent into England in the year 668, at the desire of king Egbert, was appointed to govern the church of Canterbury. In this high station he assiduously employed himself in settling the faith and ecclesiastical discipline of England; and after having spent many years in the performance of various important and useful services, he died in 690. at the age of twenty-eight years. With a view to the restoration of the neglected discipline of penance, he published a book of canons, under the title of "Penitential." In this book, sins were distributed into various classes, according to their respective nature and aggravation, and various kinds of penance were assigned to them; forms of consolation, exhortation, and absolution were prescribed, and other such matters respecting discipline were regulated. This penitential passed from Britain to other countries, and became the model of similar works. It is still extant, in an imperfect state; and an edition of it was published at Paris by Petit, in 1679, 4to. with notes and dissertations.
CRESCONIUS, or CRISCONIUS, an African bishop. He
is worthy of note, as having formed a collection of ecclesiastical canons, which, after remaining for ages among the MSS. in the Vatican library, was thought worthy of being published in an abridged form at Paris, in the year 1609, and afterwards at full length in 1661, by Voël and Justel, editors of the Bibliothèque du Droit Canon. Cardinal Baronius appears to have been the first person by whose notice this collection was rescued from oblivion, which is certainly a work of some curiosity to ecclesiastical historians.
IBRAHIM IMAM, the chief priest of the Mahometan religion, was a descendant of the illustrious house of Abbassides. His reputation and authority were so great, that Marvan or Hemar, the last caliph of the Ommiades, caused him to be put to death by thrusting his head into a bag of lime.
ST. CUTHBERT, was born in the north of England, and educated under the Scottish monks, in the famous abbey of Ilgii, since I'colm-Hill; celebrated for having been the seat of learning for British and Irish monks in that age. Egfred, king of Northumberland, invited Cuthbert to his court, where he converted and baptized many of the nobles. He was made bishop of the Northumbrian Saxons. But his love of solitude induced him to repair to Lindisferna, since called Holy Island, where he founded a monastery, the remains of which are yet to be seen. He died in 686, leaving behind him a great number of disciples.
AIDAN, bishop of Lindisfarne, or Holy Island, was originally a monk in the monastery of Iona or I'colmkill. In 634, he came to England at the request of Oswald, king of Northumberland, who employed him to instruct his subjects in the Christian religion. By his advice, the episcopal see was removed from York to Lindisfarne, where a beautiful monastery was erected, the ruins of which are still in being. Here Aidan laboured with great assiduity and success, till his death in 651. Some miracles are ascribed to him, and among others he is said to have calmed the sea in a storm, by pouring upon it consecrated oil. Yet the virtue of oil in such a case was mentioned by Pliny, in his Natural History, and Dr. Franklin has since confirmed it by experiments. Some time after, king Oswin had presented the bishop with a fine horse and rich housings, happening to meet with a poor man upon the road begging charity, Aidan dismounted, and presented the horse, thus caparisoned, to the beggar. The king was told of this eccentric act of humanity, and, when he next saw the bishop, expressed some displeasure at the slight which he conceived to have been put upon his favour. Aidan quaintly, but forcibly, replied, "Which do you value most, the son of a mare, or a son of God?" The reply made such an impression upon the king, that he afterwards intreated the bishop's forgiveness.
The following observations which Aidan made to a priest, who employed rigid means in attempting to convert the British people, are a strong proof of his good sense. "Your want of success, brother," said he, "seems to me to be owing to your want of condescension to the weakness of your unlearned hearers; whom, according to the apostolic rule, you should first have fed with the milk of a mild and less rigid doctrine, till, being nourished by degrees with the word of God, they were become capable of relishing the more perfect and sublime precepts of the Gospel."
PAULÍNUS, an English bishop, who flourished in the early part of this century. He was the apostle of Yorkshire, and was the first archbishop of York. He built a church at Almonbury, and dedicated it to St. Alban, where he converted the Brigantes. Camden mentions a cross at Dewsborough, which had been erected to him, with this inscription, "Paulinus hic prædicavit et celebravit." York was so small at this time, that there was not so much as a small church in it, in which king Edwin could be baptized. Constantius made it a bishopric. Pope Honorius made it a metropolitan see. Paulinus baptized in the river Swale, in one day, ten thousand men, besides women and children, on the first conversion of the Saxons to Christianity, besides many at Halystone. At Walstone, in Northumberland, he baptized Sigebert, king of the East Saxons. Bede says, "Paulinus coming with the king and queen to the royal manor, called Ad-Gebim, (now Yeverm), staid there thirty-six days with them, employed in the duties of catechizing, instructing, and baptizing the people in the neighbouring river Glen." He adds, that "he preached the word in the province of Lindiffi, and converted the governor of the city of Lindocollina, whose name was Blecca, with all his family. In this city he built a stone church of exquisite workmanship, whose roof being ruined, only the walls are now standing." He also founded a collegiate church of prebends, near Southwell, in Nottinghamshire, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, when he baptized the Poictani in the Trent.
ST. ČEADDA, or CHAD, was educated in the monastery of Lindisfarne, under St. Aidan. To improve himself in sacred literature he went into Ireland, and spent some time with St. Egbert, till recalled by his brother, St. Cedd, to assist him in arranging the concerns of the monastery of Lestingay, which he had founded in the mountains of the Deiri, or Woulds of Yorkshire. St. Cedd being made bishop of London, or of the east Saxons, left to him the entire government of this house. Oswi having yielded up Bernicia, or the northern part of his kingdom, to his son Alefrid, this prince sent St. Wilfrid into France, that he might be consecrated to the bishopric of the Northumbrian kingdom, or of York; but he staid so long