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eunuch. Their arbitrary government caused a general disaffection, which, it is said, the emperor was meditating to chastise, by a general massacre of the Constantinopolitans; when Leontius, a great commander, whom he had imprisoned for three years, and just liberated in order to send him to the government of Greece, was encouraged to attempt the deliverance of his country. His soldiers broke open the prisons; and the people, summoned to the church of St. Sophia, by the patriarch, proclaimed Leontius emperor, and seized the tyrant and his ministers without resistance. Justinian's life was spared, but he was disgraced by the amputation of his nose, whence his Greek sirname of Rhinotmetus. This revolution took place in the tenth year of his reign. He was exiled to Chersonæ in Crim Tartary, where he remained till Leontius was dethroned, and Apsimar was invested with the purple, who took the name of Tiberius. The Chersonites fearing lest the efforts of Justinian to recover his power might engage them in troubles, determined either to put him to death, or deliver him up to Tiberius. He being made acquainted with their design, fled with a few followers to the khan of the Chozars, a tribe between the Tanais and Borysthenes. The khan received the fugitive with honour, and gave him his sister Theodora in marriage; but tempted by a bribe from Tiberius, was on the point of betraying or assassinating him. This being made known to Justinian by his spouse, he strangled with his own hands the khan's emissaries, and fled by sea to Terbelis, prince of the Bulgarians. On his voyage his vessel was assailed by a violent tempest, when one of his domestics desired him to recommend himself to heaven by a general forgiveness of his enemies. "May I perish this instant," he replied, " if I mean to spare one of them." The Bulgarians raised an army for his restoration. They marched to Constantinople, and Justinian soon obtained admission, and resumed the supreme authority.
A tyrant returning to power from exile has always been an object of terror, and revenge was a ruling passion in the soul of Justinian II. He first revenged himself on the two usurpers, who had successively occupied his place, and he got both of them into his power. They were dragged through the city in triumph, and then placed in chains beneath his throne in the circus, whence he beheld the spectacles, with a foot upon each of their necks, whilst the inconstant people shouted "Thou shalt trample on the asp and the basilisk," &c. They were then led to execution. The patriarch was deprived of his eyes and banished to Rome. All whom he deemed his enemies were sacrificed to his fury; and it is said that provinces were almost depopulated by the multitude of executions. He ungratefully broke his treaty with the king of the Bulgarians, who had restored him, and invaded his country; but was defeated and
compelled to fly. He then prepared to execute his vengeance against the Chersonites, and sent a fleet and army, with orders to destroy the whole people. His inhuman command was at first imperfectly executed, and children were spared in the massacre; upon which, in a rage, he repeated the order, and they followed the fate of their parents. Some of the colonists, however, had taken refuge among the Chozars, and a number of exiles and enemies assembling, proclaimed Bondanes emperor, under the name of Philippicus. Some troops were sent against him, joined his party, and he marched to Constantinople, where he was received without opposition. Justinian was at this time at Sinope, with a body of Thracians. These, gained over by Philippicus, abandoned him, and the tyrant fell beneath the swords of assassins, A.D. 711. Such was the odium that he had inspired, that his young son Tiberius, whom his grandmother had placed in a sanctuary, was dragged before the altar, and murdered before her eyes.
ANASTASIUS II., whose proper name was ARTEMIUS, was raised to the throne of Constantinople, from the station of a secretary, by the free voice of the senate and Roman people. By his natural talents, daily improving, he had managed with great prudence the affairs of the empire, while secretary to his predecessor Philippicus. In the beginning of his reign, the Saracens having made inroads upon Asia Minor, he sent a strong army, under Leo the Isaurian, an experienced commander, to the frontiers of Syria, for its protection. The Saracens had also meditated the design of taking Constantinople; but the vigilance of Anastasius defeated their purpose. He provided a powerful naval force, repaired the walls of the city, and obliged the inhabitants either to lay in provisions for three years, or leave the city. Disappointed in their scheme, the enemy's fleet sailed for Phoenicia, and the imperial fleet assembled at Rhodes to watch their motions. But the measures of the emperor were severely checked by a mutiny among the sailors, who killed their admiral for endeavouring to keep them in proper subordination; and dreading their just punishment, they raised the standard of rebellion, declaring Anastasius unworthy to reign, and conferring the purple upon Theodosius, a person of low birth. When Anastasius heard this, he fled from his tottering throne to Nice; and Theodosius hastened to besiege Constantinople, which after a feeble defence of six months, he reduced to subjection. The late emperor, being assured of his life, abandoned his claim, assumed the character of a monk, and was banished to Thessalonica, having reigned only two years. Afterwards, however, having got the Bulgarians to espouse his cause, he laid aside the habit of a monk for that of a warrior; and, in 719, when Leo was emperor, resumed his claim to the throne. But though a numerous body
of these barbarians hastened to the capital, they were unable to reduce it; and they delivered up the unfortunate Anastasius to the usurper who put him to death with his chief associates.
LEO III., the Isaurian, emperor of the east, was the son of a poor mechanic, but entering the army, became one of the body-guard to Justinian II.; and was made a general by Anastasius II., who, in 717, made him his colleague in the empire. The Saracens having ravaged Thrace, besieged Constantinople, but he bravely defended it, and repulsed them. Leo, in order to strengthen his throne, caused, in the fifth year of his reign, his young son Constantine, surnamed Copronymus, to be solemnly crowned. Leo wished to reform the church by removing image-worship. He began with assembling a council of senators and bishops, who concurred with him in directing the removal of images from the sanctuary and altar in churches; but proceeding in a second edict to enjoin the total expulsion of pictures and images, he was opposed by the patriarch Germanus, whom he exiled. The destruction of objects so much venerated, and especially of a statue of Jesus Christ placed over one of the gates of the city, struck the superstitious people with so much horror, that a serious insurrection was the consequence, which was not quelled without much bloodshed. Leo had authority enough to enforce his reform in the eastern empire, but in the west it encountered a more formidable opposition. Pope Gregory II. declared with great warmth against the imperial edict, and excommunicated the exarch of Ravenna, who attempted to put it in force. The people of Italy openly revolted; Ravenna fell under the power of the Lombards; the Roman people renounced their allegiance, and resolved to support the pope as their head. A fleet sent by Leo to chastise the revolters was wrecked in the Adriatic, which, of course, was interpreted by the orthodox as a divine interposition. Irritated by the resistance he met with, Leo, it is said, behaved with great cruelty against those of the opposite party who came under his power; and the Saracens took advantage of these dissensions to make incursions into the bordering provinces. To these calamities was added a destructive earthquake, which affected his capital, in the last years of his life. He died in 741, after an agitated reign of twenty-four years.
AKBAH, a celebrated Saracen conqueror, who overrun the whole of Africa, from Cairo to the Atlantic ocean. At the head of ten thousand of the bravest Arabs, he marched from Damascus, and gradually increased his army by numbers of
the barbarians, whom he had conquered and converted. Amid the fictions of oriental writers, it is not easy to follow Akbah through the line of his victories. We know merely that he penetrated with dauntless intrepidity the very heart of the country, and after traversing the wilderness, where his successors erected the capitals of Fez and Morocco, that he carried his arms to the Western ocean. Distressed at this limitation, which nature had set to his brilliant career, he spurred his horse into the ocean, and exclaimed, "Great God! if my course was not terminated by this sea, I would still advance to the unknown regions of the west, preaching the unity of thy holy name, and putting to the sword the rebellious nations that worship any other God but thee." A general revolt among the Greeks and Africans, recalled him from the west, and proved the means of his destruction. The insurgents trusted to the revenge of an ambitious chief, who had disputed the command, and having failed in his designs, was led about as a prisoner in the camp of Akbah. He revealed their design, however, to the Arabian general, who, under the impulse of gratitude, unloosed his fetters, and gave him leave to retire. The generous chief chose rather to die with his benefactor, and having embraced each other as fellow martyrs, and broken to pieces their scabbards, they fell by each other's side, after a glorious conflict with the insurgents. Akbah proposed to establish an Arabian colony in the interior of Africa, in order to check the barbarians, and secure a place of refuge to the families of the Saracens. He accordingly founded Cairoan, under the title of a Caravan Station, in the 50th year of the Hegira. He encompassed an area of 12,000 paces in diameter with a brick wall, and in five years the palace of the governor was encircled with a number of private dwellings; and a splendid mosque was erected upon five hundred columns of granite, porphyry and Numidian marble.
ALI, or HALI, the son of Abutalib, cousin-german and son-in-law of Mahomet, being married to his daughter Fatima. He was the fourth caliph after him, as he did not succeed till after the death of Othman in 655, though he stood competitor with Abu Becr, upon Mahomet's death, A.D. 632, which occasioned a civil war among the Mussulmans. He was murdered in the fifth year of his reign, and the sixtieth of his age, A.D. 660, near Cafa, in Arabia Felix, by Moawiyah, the sixth caliph; who, to obtain that dignity, murdered Ali's son and successor, Hosein, along with his brother Hassan, and eleven of Ali's grandsons, within six months after his death. Here, it is worth remarking, that the four first successors of Mahomet, Abu Becr, Omar, Othman, and Ali, whom he had employed during his life as his chief agents in establishing his religion, by extirpating unbelievers, and whom on that account
he styled the cutting swords of God, like the successors of Alexander, all died violent deaths; and that this bloody impostor's family, as well as that of the mad monarch of Macedonia, was nearly, if not totally, extirpated within thirty years after his death. The Persian emperors, of the race of the Sophis, claim to be lineally descended from his grandson Musa Caim, the only one of the family who escaped the massacre of Muavius. He is said to have been the author of several works, particularly one entitled "Centiloquium," which is much esteemed among the Arabs and Persians; and part of which has been translated into English by M. Ocley. He also wrote an interpretation of the Koran, different from that of Omar.
KHAULA, an Arabian heroine. Amongst this warlike and unsettled nation, when the flower of any tribe went upon a distant enterprise, some hostile neighbours would often attack those they had left behind; and thence arose, perhaps, the custom of the Arabian women, even of the highest rank, attending their husbands, fathers, and brothers, in their military expeditions, and fighting, often with a degree of heroism not inferior to the fabled achievements of the ancient Amazons. We have many instances of the day having been restored by them after the men had fled; but none more remarkable than the famous battle of Yermonks, which proved decisive of the fate of Syria, and of the Greek empire of the East.
The Grecians greatly out-numbered the Arabians, and their onset was so impetuous that they drove them to their tents; there the fugitives were stopped by the women, who alternately encouraged and reproached them; they threatened even to join the Greeks; and one of the bravest officers appearing disposed for flight, a lady knocked him down with a tent-pole, saying, Advance, paradise is before your face! Fly, and the fire of hell is at your back!" The chief women then took the command, and made head, till night parted the combatants. The next day they led them again to the attack, Khaula, sister to one of the principal commanders, acting as general. In leading the van, she was beaten to the ground by a Greek; when Wafeira, one of her female friends, striking off his head at a blow, brought the heroine off. Animated by the noble behaviour of the women, the Arabs soon became irresistible, and routed the Grecian army whose loss, it is said, amounted to one hundred and fifty thousand killed, and about fifty thousand prisoners. Khaula was afterwards espoused by the caliph Ali.
Nothing is more disgusting than to see women rush into unnecessary danger. They have seldom an opportunity, or rather need, of being heroines, except by suffering with patience and fortitude whatever pains or misfortunes may fall to their lot in this life. But sometimes there are occasions which awaken active courage; and when duty or compassion call for more