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little share of scruple. At the same time, it appears that she was possessed of considerable abilities, was well versed in the arts of government, and benefited her country by the erection of churches, monasteries, hospitals, causeways, and other public works, which display great power and wealth directed by an enlarged mind.

CHILDEBERT II., king of Austrasia or Metz, was the son of Sigebert by Brunehaut. On the assassination of his father in 575, he was only five years of age, and would probably have fallen a victim to the cruelty of his uncle Chilperic, had he not been privately removed from Paris, and conveyed to Metz, where the nobility proclaimed him king. On the death of Chilperic, Childebert was induced by his counsellors to march to Paris, in order to seize a part of his dominions. Some years afterwards, Childebert entered into a treaty with the Greek emperor Maurice, to assist him, in consideration of a large subsidy, in expelling the Lombards from Italy. In consequence, he marched several armies into Italy; but they met with great losses from disease and the enemy. Childebert's power, however, was so formidable, that the Lombards repeatedly purchased a truce with him; and at length, gave him an annual subsidy as the price of peace. The young king was assailed by domestic conspiracies against his life and authority, which he was fortunately able to defeat; and on the death of his uncle Gontran, who had been his constant friend, he ob tained, in 593, a large accession of dominion. The possession of some of these territories, however, cost him a war with Fredegonde, as guardian of her son Clotaire II., in which his troops sustained a great defeat at Soissons. He afterwards entirely extirpated a barbarous nation called the Varnes, whom Frede gonde had excited against him. Soon after this victory he died, not without suspicion of poison, in 596, at the early age of twenty-six. Several regulations for the maintenance of good order in his states are ascribed to this prince, and make a part of the capitularies of the ancient kings of France.

THIERRI II., second son of Childebert, was king of Bur gundy and Austrasia. Brunehaut, his mother-in-law, at whose instigation he had murdered his brother, caused him to be poisoned, 613.

CLOTAIRE II., son and successor of Chilperic I. His father died when he was only four months of age; his mother maintained the kingdom for him, with great spirit and success, against the efforts of Childebert. After her death Theodebert and Thierri defeated him; but he afterwards re-united the different kingdoms of France under himself, after putting to death a great number of princes. He restored tranquillity, gained the hearts of his subjects, and secured the attachment of the great by increasing their power; he committed the government of

Austrasia and Burgundy to the mayors of the palace, who, from that period being constituted a kind of viceroys, acquired every day additional power. These officers, who were judges in the palace, becoming the ministers of princes, and arbitrators of the government, soon acted as sovereigns under kings who had neither strength nor talents to reduce them to their duty. On a revolt of the Saxons in 627, Clotaire marched to the assistance of his son Dagobert, who had been defeated by them, and routed them with great slaughter killing their duke Bertoald with his own hand. Clotaire died in 628, at the age of forty-five, much respected by his subjects, having acquired from them the titles of the Great and the Debonnair.

BRITAIN.

ARTHUR, a British prince, was the son of Uther Pendragon, king or dictator of the Britons, by the wife of the duke of Cornwall. He succeeded Uther in 516, and was immediately engaged in a war with the Saxons, in which he was completely successful; he next turned his arms against the Scots and Picts, in which he was also victorious. It is moreover said, that he conquered Ireland and the western isles of Scotland; and that, after a series of warlike exploits, he passed the remainder of his days in peace, governing his kingdom with great wisdom and moderation. He instituted the military order of the knights of the round table, and settled Christianity at York in the room of paganism. He died A. D. 542.

CONSTANTINE II., the son of Cordo, prince of Cornwall, and nephew of the celebrated king Arthur, succeeded that prince, A. D. 542. He defeated and slew his rivals in a church in Westmoreland, but was killed in battle by Aurelius Conanus.

AURELIUS CONANUS, an ancient British prince, nephew of the celebrated king Arthur, succeeded Constantine II., A. D. 545, and, like his uncle, had long wars with the Saxons. He died A. D. 578, and is celebrated as a prince of a liberal spirit.

ETHELBERT, king of Kent, succeeded to the throne about the year 560. He began his reign with a resolution to revive the reputation of his family, which had been sinking in the scale of monarchy; with this view he made war upon the king of Wessex, by whom he was twice defeated, though he was afterwards triumphant, and acquired the complete ascendancy over Wessex and the other states, except Northumberland, and reduced them to the condition of his tributaries or dependants. In the reign of Ethelbert, Christianity was introduced into England. The king had married Bertha, daughter of the king of Paris, who being a Christian, had stipulated for

the free exercise of her religion, and had carried over in her train a French bishop. So exemplary in every respect were her life and conduct, that she inspired the king and his court with a high respect for her person, and for the religion by which she appeared to be influenced. The pope, taking advantage of this circumstance, sent a mission of forty monks, at the head of whom was Augustine, to preach the gospel in the island. They landed in Kent in 597, and were well and hospitably received by Ethelbert, who assigned them habitations in the isle of Thanet. A conference was held, and the king took time to consider of the new doctrines propounded to him; and in the meantime gave them full liberty to preach to his subjects. Numbers were converted, and at length the king submitted to a public baptism. Christianity proved the means of promoting knowledge and civilization in this island; and the king, with the consent of his states, enacted a body of laws, which was the first written code promulgated by the northern conquerors. Ethelbert died in the year 616, and left his crown, after a reign of fifty years, to his son Edbald.

HEAULIN, king of the West Saxons, after his father Kenric in 565. He gave the Britains two great overthrows, the first at Dereham in Gloucestershire, where he slew three of their kings, upon which Gloucester, Cirencester, and Bath, fell into his hands; the second at Fethanleag, where he gathered a rich booty; but the Britains, at Waden's Mount in Wiltshire, ruined his whole army, and drove him out of the kingdom. The next year he died very poor. He was the most potent, and indeed sole king of all the Saxons on this side the Humber.

SCOTLAND.

EUGENE III., succeeded to the Scottish throne on the death of Conranus. His reign was uncommonly peaceable. He died A. D. 558, after a reign of twenty-three years.

CONGAL II., king of Scotland, succeeded Eugene III. He was a pious prince, and died A. D. 569, after a reign of eleven years.

KINNATEL succeeded to the throne of Scotland on the death of Congal II. He reigned very well the short time he lived, which was only one year.

AIDANUS, or AIDAN, the son of Goram, or Conran, the forty-ninth king of Scots, succeeded his cousin Kennattel, A. D. 570, and was crowned by the celebrated Columba, who afterwards obtained a peace to be settled between the Scots and Picts. This, however, was soon after disturbed, by Ethelfred, king of Northumberland, who excited Brudeus king of the VOL. II.

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Picts, and Ceulin, king of the West Saxons, against the Scots, and carried on a war for some years with various success. Aidan died A. D. 604, in the thirty-fourth year of his reign.

ARTHUR, prince of Scotland, the son of king Aidan, was slain in battle fighting against the Picts, about A. D. 600. KENNETH I., king of Scotland, son of Congal II. He succeeded Aidanus, and only reigned one year.

EUGENE IV., king of Scotland, succeeded Kenneth I. He reigned in peace, instituted good laws, and died after a reign of fifteen years, A. D. 621.

FERQUHARD I., son of Eugene IV., succeeded his father on the throne of Scotland. He being a vicious tyrant, was deposed by his nobles, and put in prison, where he killed himself, A. D. 632, after reigning eleven years.

PHILOSOPHY.

AMMONIUS, a philosopher, who taught at Alexandria. He was the disciple of Proclus, and obtained great reputation as a preceptor. He had for his scholars Simplicius, and Damascius; the latter of whom represents him as an excellent mathematician. His commentaries upon Aristotle and Porphyry are still extant.

DAMASCIUS, a celebrated heathen philosopher, born at Damascus, A. D. 540, when the Goths reigned in Italy. He wrote the life of his master Isidorus. In this life, which was copiously written, he frequently made oblique attacks on the Christian religion. We have nothing remaining of it but some extracts preserved by Photius. Damascius succeeded Theon in the rhetorical school, and Isidorus in that of philosophy at Athens.

SIMPLICIUS, an ancient philosopher. He was a follower of Ammonius, and like him a firm adherent to paganism. He was one of those, who, thinking themselves not safe under Justinian, went with Aresbindus, to Chosroes, king of Persia; but he not answering their expectations, they returned to Athens, A.D. 549, after stipulating their liberty to adhere to the religion of their ancestors. Simplicius was a professor of the peripatetic philosophy, and wrote commentaries upon Aristotle's works; some of which are lost; but of all that are extant, none is more highly valued than his Commentary upon Epictetus; which has been often printed in Greek and Latin. His whole works were published at Leyden in 1640. He died about 566.

POETRY.

HONORIUS CLEMENTIANUS FORTUNATUS VENANTIUS, a Christian poet, was a native of Italy, and studied at Ravenna. He afterwards settled in France, where he became bishop of Poictiers; and died in 609. He was considered the best Latin poet of his age; and a complete edition of his works was printed at Rome in 1786. 2 vols. 4to.

ANATOR, a Latin poet, was a native of Liguria, and patronized by pope Vigilius, to whom he presented the Acts of the Apostles in Latin verse. This work has been several times printed. The author died in 556.

ANEURIN, called the sovereign of bards and of flowing music, a celebrated British poet. He was a chieftain among the Olodinian Britons, who behaved valiantly at the battle of Cattraeth, which he celebrates in an excellent poem preserved in the Welsh archæology. This, with another piece, entitled the Odes of the Months, are all that now remain of his works. He died about A.D. 570.

CADOG, commonly called the Wise, a bard who flourished in this century. He was the first who collected the British proverbs together. There are some churches dedicated to him in South Wales.

MERDDIN, the son of Mervyn, a celebrated Welsh poet, who flourished about A.D. 560. He ranked with Merddin Emyrs, and Taliessin, as the three principal Christian_bards of Britain. Merddin is said to have slain his nephew in battle; on which account he secluded himself from society in a wood, whence he is called Merddin the Wild.

TALIESSIN, the most famous of the ancient bards of Wales. He flourished in this century, under princes Elphin and Urien. About eighty of his poems are preserved, and published in the Welsh Archæology.

LLYWARCH HEN, a celebrated Welsh poet. Many of his compositions are extant and were collected and printed by Mr Owen, who says that he came from the north of England. He distinguished himself in the defence of his country against the Saxons; and he lost twenty-four sons in the same cause. He died in a solitary cell in the parish of Llanvor, near Bala, aged 150.

TYSILIO, a Welsh poet, historian, and divine. He wrote a Chronicle of Britain; from which Geoffry of Monmouth compiled his fabulous history.

COLUMBANUS, a saint and poet, born in Ireland, and brought up to a religious life among the disciples of St. Columba. He made uncommon progress in learning, and very early composed a book of psalms, and a number of moral poems.

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