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APOLLODORUS, a famous architect, a native of Damascus, who lived in the reigns of Trajan and Adrian. He was builder of the stone bridge thrown over the Danube by Trajan, one of the most splendid works of that emperor. He likewise constructed the edifices round the Forum Trajanum in Rome, among which was a triumphal arch, as well as the sculptured column still existing, and bearing the name of Trajan. Dion attributes to this architect a college and theatre for music. The rudeness with which he treated Adrian cost him dear. That prince being present at a conversation between Trajan and Apollodorus on some plans of architecture, interfered with his opinion, on which Apollodorus bid him " go and paint gourds," an amusement he was fond of," and not expose his ignorance in matters he did not understand." Adrian never forgot the affront, and when he became emperor refused to employ this architect. To show him that he did not want his services, he sent him the plan of a sumptuous temple of Venus he was building, and asked him what he thought of it. Apollodorus made some just criticisms upon it, which only aggravated his former offence. The emperor, who was meanly jealous of men of talent, banished him, and, having caused him to be accused of various crimes, put him to death.
ARCHELAUS, the son of Apollonius, one of the greatest sculptors of antiquity, was a native of Ionia, and is thought to have lived in the time of the emperor Claudius. He executed, in a marble, the Apotheosis of Homer. This masterpiece in sculpture, was found in 1568, in a place named Frattocchia, belonging to the princes of Colonna, where, it is said, the emperor Claudius had a pleasure house. Father Kircher, Cupert, Spanheim, and several other learned antiquaries have given a description and explication of this work.
ZENODORUS, a sculptor in the age of Nero. He made a statue of Mercury, as also a colossus for the emperor, which was 110 feet high, and which was consecrated to the sun. The head of this colossus was some time after broken by Vespasian, who placed there the head of an Apollo, surrounded with beams.
AGASIAS, a sculptor of Ephesus, and the disciple, if not the son, of Dositheus. He is celebrated by his admirable sta
tue called the Gladiator, which was found with the Apollo Belvidere at Nettuno, formerly Antium, the birth place of Nero. It is still in great preservation, except the right arm, which was restored by Algardi.
POLYDORUS, a celebrated carver of Rhodes, who with one stone made the famous statue of Laocoon and his children. AGESANDER, a sculptor of Rhodes under Vespasian, who made a representation of Laocoon's history, which now passes for the best relict of all ancient sculpture.
ATHENODORUS, a celebrated sculptor, whose work, conjointly with Agesander and Polydorus, was the celebrated group of Laocoon, at Rome.
RABIRIUS in the reign of Domitian. He built a celebrated palace for the emperor, of which the ruins are still seen at Rome.
CELIUS AURELIANUS, or, as some have called him Lucius Cœlius Arianus, an ancient physician, and the only one of the sect of the methodists of whom we have any remains, was of Sicca, a town of Numidia, in Africa. This we learn from the elder Pliny, as we might almost have collected it, without any information at all, from his style, which is very barbarous, and much resembling that of the African writers. It is half Greek, half Latin, harsh, and difficult, yet strong, masculine, full of good sense, and valuable for the matter it contains. It is frequently very acute and smart, especially where he exposes the errors of other physicians, and always nervous. What age Coelius Aurelianus flourished in, we cannot determine, there being so profound a silence about it among the ancients; but it is very probable that he lived before Galen; since it is not conceivable that he should mention, as he does, all the physicians before him, great as well as small, and yet not make the least mention of Galen. He was not only a careful imitator of Soranus, but also a strenuous advocate for him. He had read over very diligently the ancient physicians of all the sects; and we are obliged to him for the knowledge of many dogmas, which are not to be found but in his books, " De celeribus et tardis passionibus." The best edition of these books is that published at Amsterdam, in 1722, in 4to. He wrote, as himself tells us, several other works; but they have all perished.
THESSALUS, a celebrated physician of Lydia, who flourished at Rome, in the reign of Nero, and came into great practice among the patricians. He adopted the system of Themison, the founder of the methodists, and was rather more vio
lent than Themison himself, in treating all his predecessors and contemporaries with contempt.
PEDACUS DIOSCORIDES, a physician and botanist, in the time of Nero, who wrote five books on the Materia Medica, containing the medical virtues of plants; the best edition of which is that of Saracenus, folio, Franc. 1598.
ANDROMACHUS, a native of Crete, and physician to the emperor Nero. He invented Theriaca, and gave a description of that medicine, in elegiac verses addressed to Nero. ARCHIGENES, a physician, born at Apamea, in Syria. He lived in the reign of Domitian, Nerva, and Trajan, and died in the 37th year of his age. He wrote a treatise on
the adorning of the hair, as also ten books on fevers.
RUFUS, the Ephesian, a physician and anatomist of considerable eminence, in the reign of the emperor Trajan, was apparently entitled to the reputation which he obtained, by his extensive knowledge and experience. Galen esteemed him one of the most able of the physicians who had preceded him. Rufus appears to have cultivated anatomy, by dissecting brutes, with great zeal and success. He traced the origin of the nerves in the brain, and considered some of them as contribut ing to motion, and others to sensation. He even observed the capsule of the crystalline lens in the eye. He considered the heart as the seat of life, and of the animal heat, and as the origin of the pulse, which he ascribed to the spirit of its left ventricle, and of the arteries; and he remarked the difference in the capacity and thickness of the two ventricles. He deemed the spleen to be a very useless viscus, and his successors have never discovered its use. He examined very fully the organs of generation, and the kidneys and bladder; he has left, indeed a very respectable treatise on the diseases of the urinary organs, and the methods of cure. He also wrote a good work on purga tive medicines, mentioning their different qualities, and the countries from which they were obtained; and a little treatise on the names given by the Greeks to the different parts of the body. Galen affirms also, that Rufus was the author of an essay on the materia medica theatra bilis, with some other essays; but these are lost.
CHARMIS, an empirical physician of Marseilles. He went to Rome, and procured a certain reputation, by prescribing every thing contrary to what his brethren prescribed. He made his patients plunge into the cold bath, during the utmost severity of the winter season. Seneca, in spite of all his wisdom, used to boast, that he had followed his ridiculous prescriptions. Charmis was uncommonly extravagant in his demands. It is said, that he required of a man of Provence, whom he had attended during a long disease, upwards of £ 800 sterling.
XENOPHON, a physician and favourite of the emperor Claudius, born in the island of Cos, and descended from Æsculapius. For his sake Claudius exempted the people of Cos from all taxes. Yet the monster was so ungrateful as to poison his benefactor, to please the parricide Agrippina.
ALCON, a surgeon of great eminence, acquired considerable wealth in his profession, under the emperor Claudius. He is said to have been expert in the art of reducing fractured or luxated bones, and in curing hernias by incision.
SORANUS, an ancient physician of Ephesus, who flourished under Trajan and Adrian, He practised first at Alexandria, and afterwards at Rome. He was of the sect called Methodists, a follower of Thessalus, Trallian, &c. and was the last and the greatest of that sect.
SORANUS, another physician also of Ephesus, who flourished somewhat later than the preceding, and who wrote a work on feminine diseases, a fragment of which has been published.
ATHENÆUS, a physician born in Cilicia, contemporary with Pliny, and founder of the pneumatic sect. He taught that the fire, air, water, and earth, are not the true elements, but that their qualities are, viz. heat, cold, moisture, and dryness; and to these he added a fifth element which he called spirit, whence his sect had their name, Pneumatics.
ASCLEPIADES, a famous physician, under Adrian, was a native of Prusa. He wrote several books concerning the composition of medicines, both internal and external.
ARETÆUS, a physician of Cappadocia, very inquisitive after the operations of nature. His treatise on agues has been much admired. The best edition of his works which are extant, is that of Boerhaave. A translation by Dr. Moffat was printed in 1786, 8vo.
MARCELLUS, sirnamed Sidetes, from the town of Side in Pamphylia, where he was born, was a physician, and flourished under Adrian and the Antonines. He wrote forty-two books on medicine, in heroic verse, in which among other things, he is particularly mentioned to have treated of Lycanthropy, a disorder in which the patient fancies himself metamorphosed into a wolf. There is a Greek epitaph upon him, which confirms what Suidas says of the number of books to which his poem extended, and relates, that they were all publicly deposited in the libraries of Rome by the emperors, to preserve the fame of the author.
FROM M. A. ANTONINUS TO M. A. GORDIAN III.
REMARKABLE FACTS, EVENTS AND DISCOVERIES.
103 Dacia reduced to a Roman province. 107 The third persecution under Trajan. 114 Armenia reduced to a Roman province.
115 Assyria subdued by Trajan. An insurrection of the Jews, who murder 200,000 Greeks and Romans.
121 The Caledonians reconquer from the Romans all the southern parts of Scotland; upon which the emperor Adrian builds a wall between Newcastle and Carlisle.
130 Jerusalem rebuilt by Adrian.
132 The second Jewish war commenced.
134 Lollius Urbicus, the Roman general, repairs Agricola's forts, which he joins by a wall four yards thick.
135 The second Jewish war ends, when the Jews were all banished Judæa.
139 Justin writes his first apology for the Christians.
152 The emperor Antoninus Pius, stops the persecution of the Christians. 173 The fourth persecution, under Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, which was at last stopt by that excellent emperor.
155 The Romans send ambassadors to China.
DURING this period the northern parts of Europe and Asia swarmed with fierce and savage hordes of barbarians, already formidable enemies of Rome, and destined soon to crush her pre-eminence, and trample her honours in the dust.
Like every thing human, Rome having reached the meridian of its power and splendour, began to decline. The provinces of Babylonia, Mesopotamia, and Assyria, revolted. The Parthians threw off their dependance; and the northern barbarians poured in increasing numbers upon the frontiers. The Parthians, who had ever been severely galled by the Roman yoke, and therefore always restless and troublesome, were at length totally subdued by Persia, which country had been long in subjection to them; but the Romans derived no advantage from this event. The enmity of Parthia to Rome was transferred to the Persians, who continued to infest the Roman territories on the east, while the barbarians reiterated their inroads on the north.