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And so Clemens Alexandrinus, Origen, Hilary, Austin, and others, understand that answer of Christ.

He doth not then forbid to be rich: riches are the good gifts of God. (Prov. x. 22) The Lord had in his church, as well a rich Abraham, Job, David, Solomon, as a poor Lazarus. Yea, in those times of danger and persecution, the spirit of the Lord, which bloweth where it listeth, did find out a Joseph of Arimathea, a Sergius Paulus, a Pudens, (who was a man of senatorian order, as Baronius telleth us, married unto Claudia, a lady of this island, of which marriage we read in Martial's epigrams. b) Yea, we read of saints in the family of Narcissus, who was that vast rich man, worth ten millions of pounds in the days of Claudius the Emperor; for of him do Calvin, P. Martyr, Paræus, Grotius, and other learned men understand that place, Rom. xvi. 11: though Baronius thinks that he was dead, when that epistle was written. We find mention likewise of saints that were of Cæsar's household. (Phil. iv. 22) If any place in the world were like hell, certainly Nero's court was the place; yet even there we meet with some that belonged unto heaven. Rich, then, he forbids them not to be.

Neither doth he forbid the use of such lawful means, by which, through God's blessing thereupon, they may be rich. We must maintain honest trades for necessary uses; (Tit. iii. 14) we must be industrious in them, that we have lack of nothing. (1 Thess. iv. 11, 12) It is true, in every estate, as well of want as plenty, we must be content; (Phil. iv. 11) for there is a rich discontent as well as a poor: we may not will, resolve, conclude upon it, that whatever come of it, by any means by which it may be effected, we will be rich. (1 Tim. vi. 9) We may say so of grace and glory, "Whatever pains or danger it cost me, I will venture all for grace;" but not so for riches; they are not absolutely and 'per se' good; and therefore not simply to be desired. We may not seek great things to ourselves: they who have most need of

qua gloriaretur, intelligeret nihil exinde recti operis fecisse, &c. Hilar. in Matth. Can. 19.-Vide Orat. Basilii in Ditescentes. Tom. 1. p. 403, 407.-Puto quid arrogantius quam verius 'servasse se mandata' responderat. Aug. Ep. 29.—Adolescens dives et superbus mentitur dicendo Omnia hæc servavi: Hieron.-Vid. Mende. Diatrib. 4. page 142, 143.—Davenant. de Justit. Actuali, cap. 44 b Martial. lib. 4. ep. 13.

Baron. An. 58. sect. 56.

them, may not greatly multiply them to themselves. (Deut. xvii. 17) Cyrus esteemed himself more rich in the hearts and love of his people, than in his exchequer, as he told Croesus. We may be more rich in a narrow estate, with God's blessing, than many wicked men are in the midst of their abundance. (Psalm xxxvii. 16) As a man may be rich in bonds, who hath but little money in hand; so may a good man be rich in promises, who is but narrow in possessions. He forbids treasures of unrighteousness; (Micah vi. 10. Hab. ii. 6, 2. Jer. xxii. 13) he forbids misplacing of treasures, making our hearts the repositories of them. (Psalm lxii. 12) But when God is pleased, without the concurrence of our sinful actions and afflictions, to give in abundance,-we may, with a good conscience, enjoy it, so long as it doth not draw away our delight from God, but enlarge our hearts to honour him therewith, and humble them the more to listen to his charge, and to be inquisitive after his counsel.

I shall not stand to enquire what measure of wealth it is which makes a man a rich man: we read of the vast riches of Croesus, Pallas, Narcissus, Lentulus, Seneca, and others; and of the monstrous and portentous expenses, almost beyond arithmetical computation, in the luxury of games, feasts, apparel, and buildings, amongst the Romans, and others. Cleopatra dissolved and drank in one draught of wine, a pearl of above seventy-eight thousand pounds in value. The ornaments of Lollia Paulina amounted to above three hundred thousand pounds; and P. Clodius dwelt in a house which cost him above one hundred and fourteen thousand pounds. There is no standing quantity, which makes the denomination of a rich man. In the apos

tle's account, he certainly is a rich man who hath plenty suf ficient for his calling, his occasions, his train, family, posterity, for necessary, decent, and liberal expenses in one word, whose estate is amply proportionable both to his condition and to his mind; for copiosum viaticum, aurápia, and penury doth not consist ἐν ὀλιγοχρηματίᾳ, but ἐν ἀπληστίᾳ, not in narrowness of wealth, but in vastness of desire.

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So

e Vid.

d Xenophon. Cyropæd. 1. 8.-Vide Greg. Tholos. de Rep. 1. 3. c. 9. Budæum de Asse, 1. 2. fol. 50. lib. 3. fol. 83. 1. 4. fol. 98, 99, 100.-Lipsi. de Magnitud. Rom. 1. 2. c. 15.-Brierwood de Nummis, c. 9. Athenæus, 1. 12.

that which is suitable to a man's mind, and to his train or estate, makes him a rich man.

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But yet still all this wealth is but v T vuv aivi, it enricheth a man but between this and his grave; "His glory will not descend after him." In all points, as he came into the world, so he must go out; naked in and naked out; he brought nothing" in, he can carry nothing out; he passethi, but the earth abides, and his house will know him no more. k And this shows the baseness of worldly wealth, First, that it is communicable to the men of this world, who have their portion only here; their bellies may be filled with these treasures';' they may have more than heart could wish; they may be mighty in power; and spend their days in wealth m; they may join house to house ", and lay field to field. man can know love or hatred by these things;" a Nabal, and a Doeg may have them as well as an Abraham, or a David. Jacob's ladder which conveyeth to heaven, may have its foot in a smoking cottage; and there may be a trapdoor in a stately palace, which may let down to hell.-Secondly, That it is of but a very narrow use; like a candle, needful in the night, but absurd in the day; like brass tokens, fit to buy some small trifles with, but not to purchase an inheritance. All the difference which riches make amongst men, are but, ev to viv, in this little isthmus of mortality. As, in casting accounts, one counter stands for a thousand pounds, another for a penny; as, in setting letters, the same letter may one while be put into the name of a prince, and the next time into the name of a beggar; but when the counters are put into the bag, and the letters into their boxes, they are there all alike. No difference between the dust of Dives and Lazarus. Come to Ahab and Jezebel when the dogs have done with them; and their vineyard and their paint is vanished unto all eternity. A living dog is better than a dead lion; a dead lion no better than a dead dog."

Our wisdom, therefore, it is to labour for that which So

1 Psalm xlix. 17. vi. 7.

h Job i. 21. 'Eya d' és adŋv oŭte Xguσòv, ove' Ninus apud Athenaum, lib. 12. m Job xxi. 13. Isai. v. 8.

i 1 Tim

g Eccles. v. 16. Eccles. i. 4. Job vii. 10. ἵππων, Οὔτ ̓ ἀργυρὴν ἄμαξαν ᾠχόμην ἕλκων. 1 Psalm xvii. 14. et lxxiii. 7. Hab. ii. 5, 6. Eccles. ix. 1. • Eccles. ix. 4.

cap. 7.

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lomon calleth durable riches;' which is current in another world, which will follow a man when he dies: "his wealth will not, his works will." (Rev. xiv. 13) To make the fear of the Lord our treasure; (Isai. xxxiii. 6) to be rich towards God; (Luke xii. 21) to lay up treasure in heaven; (Luke xviii. 22) to buy of Christ gold tried in the fire, that we may be rich. (Rev. iii. 18) As Abraham sent jewels of silver, and gold, and raiment unto Rebecca, the wife of Isaac, the son of promise; (Gen. xxiv. 53) so doth the Lord give rich and precious ornaments unto the church his spouse. (Ezek. xvi. 10, 13) The graces of the spirit are compared unto chains and borders of gold, and studs of silver. (Cant. i. 10, 11) These riches are returnable into heaven. To be rich in faith, in knowledge, in wisdom, will stand us in stead, when the world hath left us. Things which come from heaven to us, while we are on the earth,-will go to heaven with us, when we leave the earth. Graces are like the waggons, which Joseph sent to carry Jacob his father: (Gen. xlv. 21) they are the vehicula, like Elijah's chariot of fire, to transport the souls of believers unto Christ. Men naturally desire durable things, strong houses, clear titles, lasting garments, jewels, and precious stones that will go every where. No riches are indeed durable, but those that are heavenly; no rust, no moth, no thief can reach them. What the philosopher affirmeth of heavenly bodies, is certainly true of heavenly graces, they are incorruptible.'

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There is a strange contradiction between men's professions and their practice. Ask a man, which, in his conscience, he thinks the best, riches or grace? and he will answer very truly, There is no comparison, no more than between God and mammon: riches not to be named the same day with grace. But observe it, and you will find no man sit still, and drowsily look when riches will drop into his mouth; but he riseth early, and goeth late to bed His worldly heart shakes and awakeneth him; Surge,' nquit Avar tia, eja surge: negas?' Instat, surge,' inquit; Non queo ;''surge.'

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He sweats, he toils, he spends his time, his studies, he ventures far and near,

Per mare pauperiem fugiens, per зaxa, per ignes.

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But for durable riches of grace and glory, which (our Saviour says) must be laboured for;' which (Solomon tells us) must be "searched and digged for, as for hidden treasures;" (Prov. ii. 4) how few are there, who evidence the truth of their profession, by the measure of their diligence; who are not far more supine in their pursuance of holiness, than of wealth! Surely, even in this sense, is that of St. James true, "Your silver and your gold shall rise up in judgement against you;" and plead, as, Cyprian tells us, Satan will plead against wicked men by way of exprobration, 'I never died for them, I never made promises of eternal life unto them;' so will your money say, "I was never able to cleanse their consciences,-to remove their guilt, or fears,to pacify their hearts,-to secure their salvation, to present them without spot or wrinkle to God; yet me they wooed and worshipped, and hunted after; and left grace and mercy, righteousness and peace, Christ and salvation, unsaluted, undesired." O learn we to build our house upon a rock, to get a kingdom that cannot be shaken, to have a city which hath foundations. Crowns may fall', thrones may miscarry: such may the storms be, as may subvert the cedars of Lebanon, and the oaks of Bashan, as may overturn towers and palaces. Treasures of darkness", hidden riches of secret places *, may be searched out and taken away: but the righteous shall not be moved; he shall not be afraid of evil tidings. The name of the Lord is a strong tower", in which he shall be kept in perfect peace, because in the Lord Jehovah is everlasting strength." a

Let us now proceed to the matter of the charge, which is first negative, and that double: First, "That they be not high-minded." This notes, that there is a secret malignity, which riches, meeting with corruption, have in them, to lift up men's minds above their due region. Tyrus edified herself, because of her wealth: "Thine heart is lifted up, because of thy riches; and thou hast set thine heart as the heart of God." (Ezek. xxviii. 5, 6) "According to their

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