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14) to spoil principalities and powers, and to triumph over them; (Col. ii. 15) to deliver us from the wrath to come; (1 Thess. i. 10) and, in one word, to offer up himself by the eternal spirit unto God, so as to obtain eternal redemption for us; (Heb. ix. 12, 14) by that one offering perfecting for ever those that are sanctified; (Heb. x. 14) ceasing' from his work as God did from his, to note the consummation of it. (Heb. iv. 10)

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These things qualifying the person that is to redeem, the work itself is double; there is redemptio per modum liberationis,' by way of deliverance out of captivity, or by way of ransom, which is called delivering us out of the hands of our enemies.' (Luke i. 74) And per modum acquisitionis, called by the apostle ἀπολύτρωσις τῆς περιποιήσεως the redemption of the purchased possession. (Ephes. i. 14) We have them both together. (Gal. iv. 4, 5)


For the former of these we must observe, 1. That there is the captive, mankind. 2. They under whom this captive is detained, the supreme judge, Almighty God, under whose law the sinful world is held. So the judge is said to cast into prison, to destroy soul and body in hell; to deliver to the tormentors, to conclude in unbelief. And under this supreme judge, Satan, sin, death, the powers of darkness, which are jailors, sergeants, officers, all under the rebuke and command of the principal judge. 3. The redeemed, the Lord our righteousness"; Jesus, that delivereth us from the wrath to come. 4. The price by him laid down for the obtaining of our discharge; for in redemption, a price was to intervene; (Jer. xxxii. 7, 10) and this was his blood. (Ephes. i. 7. 1 Pet. i. 18, 19)

Men may be several ways freed from captivity. 1. By escape, as Peter by the help of the angel. (Acts xii. 11) 2. By dismission and free release, as Absalom was dismissed from banishment by the free pardon of David. (2 Kings xiv. 21) 3. By power, as Abraham rescued Lot out of the hands of those that had taken him captive. (Gen. xiv. 16) 4. By commutation of one for another, as prisoners in war use to be mutually exchanged. 5. By ransom, and payment of a

f Rom. vii. 6. xxvi. 18.

g Matth. v. 25. iii. 20. xviii. 34. Rom. xi. 32. Acts

h Jer. xxiii. 6. 1 Thess. i. 10.

price. And in this manner hath Christ delivered his church, by giving his life a ransom for many. (Mat. xx. 28. 1 Tim. ii. 6) For though it be as to ourselves a free condonation, we have remission of sins by the riches of his grace. (Rom. iii. 24. Ephes. i. 7) And though it be as to Satan, and all the powers of darkness, a victorious rescue, whom Christ spoileth; (Luke xi. 21) yet as to God, the judge, whose justice our sin offended, from whose wrath we cannot be delivered, till that justice be first satisfied, it was by the solution of a price, or laying down of a proper ransom: for the Lord spared not his own Son, but laid upon him the iniquity of us all, which he bare in his body on the tree', so that he was made a curse for us "; made purposely under the law, that he might pay, by his obedience to the law, that debt which we had contracted, but could never discharge. Unto his father, did Christ pay this price for us. He had the primitive and original property in us; from his service we, revolting unto the service of another Lord, were responsible to him as our judge for so great a wrong; "debet omnis qui peccat, honorem quem rapit Deo solvere," as Anselm speaks. His prisoners and debtors we were: to him alone we pray for the pardon of them. Satan and death were but his jailors, unto whose power and custody we were delivered. Though they were our Lords, and we their servants by a covenant of sinning, yet they were usurpers in regard of God, by intruding upon his right in us; for we, being his, and not our own, had no more power to alienate ourselves from his service, than one man's apprentice hath to bind himself unto another master. Here then having been a double wrong done unto God; one by the sinner, another by Satan; Christ satisfieth for the wrong of the sinner, by suffering his curse; and revengeth the wrong of Satan, by rescuing the sinner from him unto his natural service again: the one in a way of justice; the other, of power.

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Now lastly, emption being a contract whereunto three particulars concur°, 'res, pretium, et consensus;' the thing bought, the price for which, and the consent of the parties contracting; unto the consummation of this work is required,

i Rom. viii. 32. ii. 13. iv. 4. 1. 3. T. 24.

k Isai. liii. 6.

1 1 Pet. ii. 24. n Anselm. Cur Deus homo, 1. 1. c. 11.

m Gal.

o Just.

besides the solution and validity of the price, the acceptation thereof by the consent of the judge, that is, of God, to the ransom. And this abundantly made known unto us in the word; the Lord declaring that "he was well pleased in his Son P" that "when his soul should be made an offering for sin, he should see his seed, and prolong his days, and the pleasure of the Lord should prosper in his hand, and he should see of the travel of his soul, and be satisfied, and by his knowledge should justify many," &c. (Isai. liii. 10, 11) That "we are accepted in the Beloved;" (Ephes. i. 6) who was answered in his prayer by a voice from heaven, to signify God's owning of that sacrifice, which he was presently after to offer. (John xii. 28) Thus we see how we were bought by way of liberation and ransom.

Now lastly, by way of purchase and acquisition, Christ, having thus bought his church with his own blood, (Acts xx. 28) hath further, by the redundancy of the merit of that his blood, purchased for it an excellent inheritance, a dowry of grace and holiness here, and of glory and blessedness hereafter; called, by the apostle, the adoption of sons.' (Gal. iv. 5)

And being thus redeemed, we are now God's own, not only upon the common and general title of creation, as all other things in the world are; but by a peculiar, and in a more gracious manner; by redemption, as his liberty; by dedication, as his temples; by union, as his members; by unction, as his peculiar people, whom he hath chosen and formed for himself. (Psalm iv. 3. Isa. xliii. 21)

Which leads to the last particular in the text, the practical inference, or use, which the apostle makes of both the propositions, that therefore we should glorify (and as the Vulgar addeth, bear, or shew forth) "God, both in our bodies, and in our spirits, which are both his :" for therefore he hath given us both the one and the other, that we might use them both unto his honour, and preserve them in that dignity and relation which they both have unto him.

And indeed, 1. Where is the Lord glorious, if not in his works?"Bless the Lord all ye his works, in all places of his dominion." (Psalm ciii. 22) We are his by creation, the

P Matth. iii. 17. xvii. 5.

work of his hands. 2. Where glorious, if not in his members? which are animated by that spirit of glory, and of God which rested upon Christ, the Lord of glory. (1 Pet. xliv. 1) And we are his by union, members that ought to be conformed to a glorious head. 3. Where glorious, if not in his temple? For "in his temple doth every one speak of his glory." (Psalm xxix. 9) And we are his by dedication, built up a spiritual temple unto him. (1 Pet. ii. 5) 4. Where glorious, if not in his own anointed people, his peculiar treasure? (Psalm cxxxv. 4) His jewels, (Mal. iii. 17) in whom he intendeth to be admired. (2 Thess. i. 10) 5. Where can he expect service, if not from those whom he hath redeemed? The civil law saith ", " Redemptus est redimentis per modum pignoris ;" and Demosthenes, rou Avraμévou éx Täv πολεμίων εἶναι τὸν λυθέντα, ἐὰν μὴ ἀποδιδῷ λύτρα That he who is delivered from enemies, is a servant unto him that delivered him, till he can pay the ransom which was given for him. "Quod emitur, transit in potestatem ementis." Where Christ is redemption, he is sanctification too; for we are redeemed from our former vain conversation, (1 Pet. i. 19) and from all iniquity. (Tit. ii. 14) Christ loved his church, and gave himself for it, that he might sanctify and cleanse it. (Ephes. v. 26. Rom. xiv. 9)

Being therefore not our own, but bought with a price, let us glorify him that bought us; 1. In adoring this great mystery brought about by the exinanition of the Son of God, and the humbling of him to our curse; for though the Omnipotent Lord wanted no other means to have wrought this deliverance; yet herein hath he magnified his power, wisdom, justice, mercy, and love, in doing it by the incarnation and suffering of his eternal Son; that as the first Adam made us sinners in semine,' so the second makes us righte ousin sanguine.' To adore the freeness of it, in that he came unsought to seek,' as well as to save.' (Luke xix. 10) And the discrimination which is therein made, between us and angels; for he took not the nature of angels, but the seed of Abraham. (Heb. ii. 16) Though the devil" in Cœlo intumuit, ego in sterquilinio."

Cod. de postilimin. reversis 1. 8. et 17. Petit. de leg Attic. 1. 2. Tit. 6. Aug. de Trin. 1. 13. c. 10. Ber. Epist. 190.

2. To admire the severity of divine justice, which would not suffer sin to go unpunished, or the sentence of death against it unexecuted, though it were in his own Son. The unsearchableness of divine mercy, in accepting a commutation, a Son for a servant, a sacrifice for a sinner. The infinite depth of divine wisdom, in finding out a way to punish the sin, and to save the sinner; to punish it thoroughly, and as thoroughly to pardon it; to cause him that was eternal, to be made; him that was impassible, to suffer; him that was Lord of life, to die: to make our nature in that person pay a debt, which all the angels in heaven could never have discharged.

3. To believe and apply the comfort of so precious a doctrine to ourselves, and to put in for a share in it, and so to glorify God, as Abraham did. (Rom. iv. 20) Without it I am a captive to sin and Satan, cursed in body, cursed in soul; my conscience says Amen,' to the curses, Deut. xxvii. 15–26. The law holds me under, the scripture shuts me out; I have no shelter nor refuge from the thunder of divine wrath.

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But now by the redemption which Christ hath wrought, God is placable, sin pardonable, the soul curable, the curse removable. And shall God offer mercy, and I refuse it? Am I bought with a price, and shall I not glorify God by accepting of it? Do I not stand in need of Christ? Is he not provided for me? Is he not revealed to me? Doth he not invite, entreat, command me to come unto him? Did he ever cast away any that did so? May I not venture to believe? May I not reach forth an arm to embrace the sure mercies of David? Are there not examples of great sinners who have been welcome unto great mercy? (1 Tim. i. 13-16) Lord, I am a great sinner; I confess it, I bemoan it, I hate it, I forsake it; I will throw away every thing which keeps me and Christ asunder: thou dost freely give Christ, I greatly want him, I earnestly desire him, I thankfully accept him, I willingly follow him; I am his ransomed servant to be ruled by him, and to live to his grace. I am bought with a price, therefore I will not be a servant of men,' (1 Cor. vii. 23) to captivate either my reason, my conscience, or my conversation, to their will. I am bought with a price: therefore I will be servant to him that bought me, that as he hath, by

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