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through him, and to him, are all things." And therefore he only being of himself, can work only for himself; and being the author of all other beings, may justly also challenge to be the end of them; for he made all things for himself. (Prov. xvi. 4)

2. By derivative propriety; men have a right under God unto many good things. There is a double grant made by God of good things,-one, by way of general indulgence; and so he "hath given the earth to the children of men," (Psalm cxv. 16) and "divided to the nations their inheritance." (Deut. xxxii. 8) Even heathen and wicked men have a right, by Divine Providence, to their estates; as he gave unto Jehu and his sons, for four generations, the throne of Israel, (2 Kings x. 30) and the land of Egypt to Nebuchadnezzar. (Ezek. xxix. 19) It is a dangerous opinion, which tendeth to the dethroning of princes, and concussion of states, to teach, that Temporale Dominium fundatur in Gratia;' and that wicked men are usurpers of all which they enjoy for the Lord maketh "his rain to fall on the just and unjust;" (Matth. v. 45) and commanded to give unto Cæsar,' a heathen king, the things which were Cæsar's.' (Matth. xxii. 21) And though wicked men, by the demerit of their sins, deserved to be deprived of good things, yet de facto,' the Lord doth indulge the use and fruition of them. And therefore it is a wicked doctrine of those Pontificians ", who teach, that a heretical prince (that is, in their sense, one that casteth off the yoke of the Roman religion) doth thereupon forfeit his temporalities into the hands of the Pope, and so to make him, in ordine ad spiritualia,' to be the disposer of crowns and kingdoms.

But this propriety, men are to use under those restrictions and limitations which the Lord in his word hath prescribed; viz. in order unto his glory, (1 Cor. x. 32) and in order to the good of ourselves and others: else, though they have a lawful, they have not a pure and sanctified, use of them.

Again, There is a divine grant by way of special grace and covenant; and thus the Lord hath given unto his peculiar

Rom. xi. 36.

h Aquin. 22. ar. 12. q. 2. Opus. de regimine principis 1. 1. c. 10.-Bell. de Pont. Rom. 1. 5. c. 6, 7, 8.-Baron. Anno. 496. sect. 26, 27. An. 593. sect. 90. Anno. 598. sect. 9. Anno. 603. sect. 23. Anno. 730. sect. 5. Suarez. Adver. Anglic. sectæ errores, lib. 3. de Prim. Pontif. cap. 23.

condignitatis, et rationem ordinis:' between the merit deserving the reward, and the order and consequence, which God hath put between the one and the other, making the reward mercifully, but withal certainly, to follow the obedience.

Again, we are to distinguish inter causam essendi, et cognoscendi ;' between the cause of confidence à priori,' and the means and arguments whereby to know it'à posteriori. Our good works are not the merit, or cause, or proper foundation of our own salvation, or confidence concerning it; but only the free grace of God, and the righteousness of Christ thereby bestowed upon us; yet from a holy life, as an effect of faith in Christ, and fruit of divine love, and certain antecedent unto salvation, we may draw comfortable arguments à posteriori' to establish our hearts in the expectations of it. In which respect the Wise man saith, that "in the fear of the Lord there is strong confidence." (Prov. xiv. 26)

And for the apostle's metaphor of a foundation, it is there opposed evidently to that which he calleth in the same place, ver. 17, the uncertainty of riches,'-to note the stability and permanency of that treasure, which they that are rich in good works, shall at last enjoy; so that there is nothing of casualty intended in it. Not to pass by the notion of a very learned man upon the place; who telleth us, that there the word Seuéxios importeth the same which Gnikar doth in the Rabbins, which signifieth, as he observeth out of Maimonides, "Scriptum quo cavetur de refundenda creditori pecunia :" so that the apostle's meaning is the same with Solomon's, (Prov. xix. 17) "He that hath pity on the poor, lendeth unto the Lord;" and so hath xaλòv Deμériov, 'Bonum nomen,' very good security for that which he hath given ;-God will pay him again.

We have seen what it is for a man to live as if he were 'sui juris,' his own, and at his own disposal: and that no man is thus his own, neither made by himself, nor made for himself; so not our own.

And if not our own, then some other's we must needs be.

b Psalm xix. 11. 1. c. 11.

c Prov. xi, 18.

d Sam. Pet. Var. Lect.

And the apostle tells us whose we are, bodies and spirits, "All of us God's ;" and therefore we cannot, without sacrilege, invade his right, and mancipate unto a harlot that which is consecrated unto him. He formed the body of the dust of the ground; therefore that is his and he breathed into it the breath of life; therefore the spirit is his. (Gen. ii. 7) His then by right of creation, and primitive designation; for whatsoever he made, he made for himself.

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How then comes in the intervention of a price to make us his, whose we are ab origine? Sure this necessarily presupposeth an alienation: for no need to buy back that which before was mine own, if it had not withdrawn itself from my disposal.

And indeed such an alienation there hath been. Adam, in his fall, played the fugitive from his first Master and Lord; and, by that means, sold his posterity under sin. (Rom. vii. 14) And sinners themselves renew oftentimes that bargain, and sell themselves to commit sin, as it is said of Ahab. (1 Kings xxi. 20, 26) So the people are said to have sold themselves for their iniquity; (Isa. 1. 1) as Balaam ran after the wages of iniquity. (2 Pet. ii. 15. Jude, ver. 11) For every one that committeth sin, is the servant of sin ;' (John viii. 34. Rom. vi. 19) and not only so, but a slave and bondman: 'he that is overcome, is brought into bondage,' (2 Pet. ii. 19) as wicked men are said to be taken captive by Satan at his will.' (2 Tim. ii. 26)

Men may be, two manner of ways, under the thraldom and tyranny of sin and Satan.

1. Voluntarily by way of covenant and contract: as wicked men are said to make a covenant with death; (Isa. xxviii. 15) as Samuel told Saul, "Rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft." (1 Sam. xv. 23) Wherein there is a kind of compact with the devil: an agreement to do such or such service for such or such wages, of pleasure, or profit, or honour, or some other poor satisfaction."

2. Judicially and penally; when men, having long provoked God by their voluntary service of lust and Satan, are, at last, by divine tradition, given up to uncleanness, and delivered unto Satan, as into the hand of a gaoler and execu

• Diabolus jure hominem possidebat, quia homo sponte diabolo consentit, Bern. Ep. 190. Nequiter usurpatum, sed juste permissum. Ibid.

tioner of divine wrath;-whereof we read, Rom. i. 24, 26, 28. 1 Tim. i. 20. 2 Thess. ii. 11.

Thus poor sinners, like fugitive servants, though they have no right to dispose of themselves (for nothing can extinguish the dominion or sovereignty which God hath over all the works of his own hands) are, by their own covenant, and sometimes by God's judgement, under the power, possession, and command of Satan. For as the Lord gave the land of Canaan to Abraham and his seed, yet the Canaanites themselves had the first possession; so the Lord hath given unto Christ a kingdom, and a seed, and people to serve him; (Psalm ii. 8, and xxii. 30. (John xvii. 6. Heb. ii. 13) but sin and Satan had the first possession of them. And as Joshua was, by the power of the sword, to vindicate the promised land unto Israel, in pursuance of God's covenant; so the Lord Jesus was to assert the people, whom his Father had given him, out of the power and possession of Satan and sin, unto himself.

And here, since that is a true saying of Pliny, “Mala emptio exprobrat stultitiam," that an ill bargain doth upbraid a man with folly; this then must needs be a very prodigy of madness, for men to sell away themselves for the poor, low, stinking, momentary pleasures of sin, when the whole world, if a man could enjoy it for ever unto himself, would not be an exchange worthy for the soul. (Mat. xvi. 26) And therefore whensoever you are allured and tempted unto sin, bring it to this issue,-Whether the wages of it be worth your souls? If not, do not incur so great an imputation of folly, as to exchange an immortal soul for a momentary and perishing vanity.

Now the passing over of these poor captives from the possession and dominion of sin and Satan unto God, is here said to be by an emption, "Ye are bought with a price." For understanding whereof, we are to know, that unto this work of redemption, two things are required: 1. A right. 2. A power to prosecute that right. The right standeth in two things. 1. In an ancient and original propriety to the thing purchased. 2. In a propinquity thereunto.

Christ hath a double claim and propriety unto his people. 1. In the right of his divine nature, and our creation, because he made us. And we cannot, by any fraudulent contract of

ours, divest him of that original and inseparable right unto his own creatures: for "by him all things were created." (Col. i. 16) 2. In the right of his mediatorship, as head of the church, to whom we were given by the Father, to be in such manner recovered, as he in his commission should appoint. He had a promise that he should see his seed: for there could not have been a redemption without the consent of the person, with whom the contract was to be made. election, the church was to be given unto Christ,-before, in redemption, he could purchase it unto himself.

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And as Christ had thus a propriety to his people; so he was to redeem them jure propinquitatis:' for the apostle alludes to the usage in the Old Testament, where he who redeemed, and brought back an alienated inheritance unto the family again, was to be a near kinsman. (Lev. xxv. 25. Ruth iv. 3, 4) Christ therefore redeeming us, and recovering the estate for us which we sold away, was to be our kinsman, that he might have the right of redemption: for "he that sanctifieth, and they that are sanctified, are all one.” (Heb. ii. 11) Sin was to be condemned in our flesh. (Rom. viii. 3) It behoved him to be like unto his brethren,' that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest.

Whence we should learn as brethren, to do all offices of love, and of helpfulness unto one another, to restore one another, to bear one another's burdens, because we are all of one blood.' (Acts xvii. 26. Gal. vi. 1) So that whatever services we do any, we do it to our own flesh,' as the prophet speaks. (Isai. lviii. 7)

But besides a right of redemption, there is required a power to actuate and execute that right. And this power is twofold: 1. A power of authority, derived from that commission and command, given unto Christ to execute all judgement: of which commission we read, John v. 22. John x. 18, 34, 35, 36. Mat. xxviii. 18. Heb. x. 7—9. 2. A power of strength and vigour, to do and suffer the things commanded. In which respect, Christ is called the captain of our salvation, stronger than the strong man, able to save to the uttermost those that come unto God through him; (Heb. vii. 25) to finish the work given him to do; (John xvii. 4) to go forth conquering, and to conquer; (Rev. vi. 2) to lead captivity captive; (Eph. iv. 8) to destroy Satan; (Heb. ii.

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