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can be subject unto him. (Rom. viii. 7) It is that which the apostle calleth λογισμοί, ύψωμα, νόημα, ‘imaginations, high things, thoughts, reasonings;' (2 Cor. x. 5) by the help whereof it is, that men do so argue and dispute in defence of those lusts, which they are loth to part with, or be convinced of a notable example whereof we have in Saul. (1 Sam. xv. 15, 20, 21)

Right reason may be considered, either with relation to the law, or to the gospel. With relation to the law: so we acknowledge, that it being the remainder of the image of God in the mind of man, it is, in things moral, though short of the word, yet consonant unto it. It is short of it: for the apostle had never known concupiscence to be sin, if the law had not forbidden it. (Rom. vii. 7) And if reason, in morals, those we mean which were natural and consecrated, had not been dimmed and defaced; there would not have been any need, in that respect, of the publication of the law, which was promulgated, that thereby we might know sin. (Rom. iii. 10) Nay, after the law was published, the apostle, till his conversion, had not the full knowledge of the spiritual nature and wideness of it, as, after, he had. (Rom. vii. 9. Phil. iii. 6) The law is perfect and spiritual; reason is not.

Yet withal it is consonant to the word; and therefore, the apostle, in some cases, appeals to nature, and bids us 'Judge within ourselves;' and tells us, that they who have not the law, are a law unto themselves;' (1 Cor. xi. 13, 14. Rom. ii. 14) and saith of the sin of the incestuous person, that it was not so much as named among the Gentiles.' (1 Cor. v. 1) There is a natural σuvlignois", or habit of practical principles, ingrafted notions of original light which the mind doth most readily assent unto; called Natural Knowledge, Jude, ver. 10; and the knowledge of God in the heathen, which makes them without excuse.' (Rom. i. 20)

With relation to the gospel, so we say, that the mysteries of the Christian religion, though they be not against reason, are yet above reason. They are not against it: Therefore our

■ Erup

in Vid. Aug. Confess. 1. 5. c. 10. et de Civ. Dei, l. 14. c. 14. tiones animæ doctrina naturæ congenitæ, et ingenitæ, conscientiæ tacita commissa, &c. Tert. de Testim. Aui. c. 5.-Primordialis lex, matrix omnium præceptorum Dei: Idem advers. Judæos, c. 2. • Aug. de Gen. ad lit.

1. 1. c. 19.

Saviour proves the resurrection of the power of God; and in like manner the apostle, Mat. xxii. 29. Acts xxvi. 8. Yet they are above it: for " eye hath not seen, nor ear heard,

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neither hath it entered into the heart of man to conceive, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him." (1 Cor. ii. 9) Therefore it is every way known by the name of a mystery,' and hidden mystery;' (Ephes. iii. 9. Col. i. 26) a mystery which flesh and blood hath not revealed, but the Spirit of God. (Mat. xvi. 17) Evangelical doctrines of faith are not comprehended, nor virtually comprised in the seeds of natural reason; but made known only by divine and supernatural revelation. P

Lastly, Though reason is not able to discover evangelical mysteries, yet the revelation of them being supposed, it is an excellent instrument to make use thereof, and to deduce such consequences from the principles of the gospel, as have a natural and clear connexion unto them. And therefore the apostle calleth evangelical teaching ̓Απόδειξις, ἔλεγχος, φανέpwσis aλnteías, a demonstration, conviction, manifestation of the truth; (1 Cor. ii. 4. John xvi. 8. 2 Cor. iv. 2) all which are acts or ways of clear ratiocination. For as nature standeth in need of grace to elevate the faculty, and give it a spiritual perception of things which are above it; so grace useth nature, and the perspicacy and acumen thereof, to make the more clear discoveries of those truths which are revealed.

We see the state of that habitude and degree wherein reason stands with relation to law, or gospel; how the one is more perfect, and the other more sublime ;-and wherein consisteth the sober and religious use of it. But when a man will exalt his reason into the throne, and set up his own high imaginations, which should be brought into captivity to the obedience of Christ, above law and gospel; and suffer the wantonness of a luxuriant and discursive fancy, to dispute away the love due to the one, the faith due to the other, and the obedience due to both; when men will make their reason the judge of God's own word, and the last resolution of every thing which they mean to do and believe;-this is

P Matth. xi. 27. Rom. xvi. 25. ὑπὲρ νοῦν, ὑπὲρ λόγον, ὑπὲρ κατάληψιν KILOTĤS PÚσEWS Tà Huérepa. Justin. Mart. de recta Conf. 4 Vid. Camero. de Verbo Dei : c. 18.

to tell the world, that they are their own, and that they acknowledge no authority above themselves."

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2. When a man maketh his own will his chief law, which he is resolved to obey. All the contest between God and wicked men, is, whose will shall stand. The Lord commands, that his will be observed; the sinner resolves, that his own will shall be obeyed. The law requires duty; the sinner will not do it. The law threateneth curses; the sinner will not believe it. The word convinceth of what is God's will; and the sinner swelleth in contumacy and obstinacy against it. Cesset voluntas propria, non erit infernus.'' In this case, the Lord resolves to make sinners know, "whose word shall stand, his, or theirs;" (Jer. xliv. 28) to break those whom he did not bend, and to make known his power against their pride; (Exod. ix. 16) to fetch his glory out of strong and stubborn people; (Isa. xxv. 3) as a tempest teareth an oak that resists it; but hurteth not the corn that yields unto it. "He resisteth the proud, and will overcome when he judgeth."

3. When a man maketh his own interest his ultimate end, directing all his aims and designs to his own gain, pleasure, credit, ease, advantage, looking in nothing beyond himself; eating to himself, drinking to himself; (Zech. vii. 6) bringing forth fruit unto himself, (Hos. x. 1) without any conscience towards God's will, or aim at his glory.

But are we so little our own then, that we may not at all seek ourselves, or eye those things wherein our own interests are concerned?-Doubtless we may. He that commands to love ourselves, allows to aim at the profiting and pleasing of ourselves. For love shews itself in benevolence and beneficence, willing and doing ourselves good. But it must not be either arbitrarily, or ultimately; not arbitrarily, but with submission to the rule of God's will; and not ultimately, but with subordination to the glory of his name. We may seek our own preservation, yet so as to acquiesce in God's providence, in whose hand our times are ", and so as to be willing, that God be magnified in our mortal body, whether by

Quid magis contra fidelem quam credere nolle quicquid non possit ratione attingere ?-Laudatur Maria, quod rationem fide prævenit; punitur Zecharias, quod fidem ratione tentavit. Bern. Ep. 190. Ber. de Resurrect. Dom. Ser. 3. t James iv. 6. Psalm li. 4. u Psalm xxxi. 15. * Phil. i. 20.


life, or by death. We may seek the improvement of any gift, temporal, or spiritual, which God hath given us; yet so as to acquiesce in that measure which he is pleased to proportion unto us, and so as to consecrate ourselves, and all our endowments unto his glory, that Christ may divide all our spoils. We are to seek our own salvation; yet even this, if a case could so be put, is to be postponed unto God's glory. But such is his goodness, as never to oppose these two, or set them in competition with one another; but ever to conjoin, and to twist them together. Whensoever we seek the glory of God, we do, eo ipso,' promote our own salvation. Whensoever we prosecute our own salvation, we do, eo ipso,' bring glory to God. Whatsoever glorifies God, doth ever end in our salvation. Faith glorifies God; Abraham was strong in faith, giving glory to God. (Rom. iv. 20) And the end of our faith, is the salvation of our soul. (1 Pet. i. 9) Works of obedience glorify God. (John xv. 8) · And they are the ready way to our own salvation; for after we have done the will of God, we shall be sure to receive the promises.' (Heb. x. 36) God can glorify himself in our damnation; but we neither can, nor may do any thing tending to our damnation, that God may be thereby glorified: for whensoever we break the law, we dishonour God. (Rom. ii. 23)

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4. When a man maketh his own performances the principal ground of all his hopes and desires; having no joy, or comfort, but what he can draw out of himself;-trusting in his own power to effect and bring about his ends, as Pharaoh and Babylon did; (Exod. xv. 10. Isa. xiv. 13, 14) sacrificing and burning incense to his own net and drag: (Hab. i. 16) ascribing successes to his own might and power, (Deut. viii. 17) as the proud Assyrian did; (Isa. x. 13) and expecting salvation from his own good works, like the proud Pharisee. (Luke xviii. 11, 12).

But may we not build on our own performances for salvation? Doth not the apostle call good works, 'a foundation? (1 Tim. vi. 19) And may we not then build upon them?

In answer hereunto, we are to distinguish inter rationem

y 1 Cor. xii. 11. VOL. V.

z Rom. xii. 13.

a Luke xi. 22.


Chrysostom, Theophylact, dismember them from the words preceding.

Wherein are considerable three particulars. 1. A double proposition, the one negative, "Ye are not your own;" the other affirmative, "Ye are God's." 2. The reason of both, "Ye are bought with a price." 3. The inference from both, "Therefore glorify God in your body and spirit."

The first proposition is negative; "Ye are not your own;" therefore it is against the rule of common right, and public justice, (Quæ suum cuique tribuit') to dispose of yourselves according to your own counsel and pleasure. "None of us liveth to himself; no man dieth to himself." (Rom. xiv. 17) We have neither being, nor well-being, nor subserviences unto either, of, or from, ourselves; therefore none of it is to be disposed at our own will. There are indeed vain men, that say, "We are Lords. (Jer. ii. 32) Our lips are our own, who is the Lord over us?" (Psalm xii. 4) and thereupon resolve to walk after their own devices, (Jer. xviii. 12) and to do whatsoever thing goeth forth out of their own mouth :(Jer. xliv. 17) but as their claim of themselves is but an usurpation, so their living to themselves is but a sacrilege, whereof they must give a strict account

A thing is said to be our own Dominio pleno,' when we have a propriety in it, and a possession of it. Propriety is twofold, original,' that of the supreme Lord;—' derivative,' as that of the copyholder, the Emphyteuta, the usufructuary, who hath a right granted to use, or to meliorate, but not to corrupt or abuse the land or tenement conveyed unto him. Possession also is twofold; the one, by way of dominion; as when a man holdeth that which is truly his own, or conceiveth bona fide to be his own:-the other, by way of custody and trust, as a guardian holdeth the estate of his pupil; a steward, or servant, the goods of his Lord; a depository the goods of him, who entrusts him with the keeping of them. This premised, we say, 1. by original propriety, none can call either himself, or any other thing, his own, but only God, who alone is the fountain of all being, whose name is, 1 AM, who is of himself only, and all other beings are by derivation and participation from him: "for of him, and

• Vid. Greg. Thol. Syntagma juris, l. 1. c. 12, 13.

f Exod. iii. 14.

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