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X

give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand. 29 us My Father, which gave them me, is greater than all; and no man is able to pluck [them] out of my y ch. xvii. 11, Father's hand. 30 y I and my Father are one. 31 z Then

22.

z ch. viii. 59.

t ch. ví. 87 : xvii. 11, 12: xviii. 9.

u ch. xiv. 28. x ch. xvii. 2, 6, &c.

the Jews took up stones again to stone him. 32 Jesus answered them, Many good works have I shewed you from my Father; for which of those works a do ye stone me? 33 The Jews answered him, saying, For a good work we stone thee not; but for blasphemy; and because that thou, being a man, makest thyself God. 34 Jesus answered them, b PSA. lxxxi. Is it not written in your law, I said, Ye are gods? 35 If he called them gods, unto whom the word of God came, and the scripture cannot be broken; 36 say ye of him, whom the Father [chath] sanctified, and sent into the

a ch. v. 18.

6.

e ch. vị. 27. d ch. iii. 17:

v. 36, 37:

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viii. 42.

e ch. v. 17, 18. world, Thou blasphemest; because I said, I am the Son

ver. 30.

rrender, and none shall.

* Most of our ancient copies read, That which my Father hath given me is greater than all.

trender, hath given.

Xomit: not in the original.

Z render, The Jews therefore. render, are ye stoning me.

&

comit.

e

tion of these sheep. The form of the
sentence is a climax; rising through the
words "I give " and "out of my hand,"
to "my Father which hath given them
me," and "out of my Father's hand."
Then the apparent diversity of the two
expressions, "out of my hand" and "out
of my Father's hand," gives occasion to
the assertion in ver. 30, that Christ and
the Father are ONE: one in essence pri-
marily, but therefore also one in working,
and POWER, and in will. Notice, one is
neuter in gender, not masculine: the
Father and the Son are not personally
one, but essentially. That the Jews un-
derstood our Lord's words to assert this
essential unity, is plain from the next verse.
31.] i. e. as having spoken blas-
phemy, Levit. xxiv. 10 ff.
32.] See
Mark vii. 37.
from my Father,
because (cf. vv. 37, 38) He Himself pro-
ceeded forth from the Father, and the
Father wrought in Him. have I
shewed you, because they were part of
the manifestation of Himself as the Son of
God.
33.] makest thyself God is
equivalent to " making himself equal to

u render, none.

y render, the.

b render, made void.

God," ch. v. 18. 34.] The word law here
is in its widest acceptation,-the whole
Old Testament, as ch. xii. 34; xv. 25. The
Psalm (lxxxii.) is directed against the in-
justice and tyranny of judges (not, the
Gentile rulers of the world, nor, the angels)
in Israel. And in the Psalm reference is
made by "I have said" to previous places
of Scripture where judges are so called, viz.
Exod. xxi. 6; xxii. 9. 28. 35.] unto
whom the word of God came, i. e. to whom
God (in those passages) spoke.
The
expression, and the scripture cannot be
broken (which is not a parenthesis, but
constructionally part of the sentence, de-
pending on if), implies, and if you cannot
explain this expression away,—if it cannot
mean nothing,-for it rests on the testi-
mony of God's word,'-
36.] The
argument is from the greater to the less.
If in any sense they could be called gods,—
how much more properly He, whom &c.
They were only officially so called, only
called gods-but He, the only One, sealed
and hallowed by the Father, and sent into
the world (the time referred to, in sanctified
and sent, is that of the Incarnation), is

"

-

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of God? 37 If I do not the works of my Father, believe fch. xv. 24. me not. 38 But if I do, though ye believe not me, 8 believe the works: that ye may know, and believe, h that h. V. 309 the Father is in me, and I in him. 391 Therefore they sought again to take him: but he escaped out of their vill. 50. hand, 40 and went away again beyond Jordan into the

xiv. 10, 11. h ch. xiv. 10, 11: xvi. 21. i ch. vii. 30, 44:

k

place where John at first baptized; and there he abode. k ch. 1. 28. 41 And many resorted unto him, and said, h John did no miracle: but all things that John spake of this man 1 ch. iii. 80. 42 m And many believed on him there.

were true.

А

XI. 1 k Now a certain man was sick, named Lazarus, 1of Bethany, the town of a Mary, and her sister Martha.. 2 b It was that Mary which anointed the Lord with oint

d render, do them.

f render, and he passed. h render, John indeed. k render, But.

essentially God, inasmuch as He is the Son
of God. The deeper aim of this argu-
ment is, to shew them that the idea of man
and God being one, was not alien from
their Old Testament spirit, but set forth
there in types and shadows of Him, the real
God-Man. Observe ye, set in empha-
tic contrast to the authority of Scripture,
-as "he whom the Father sanctified".
is to "them to whom the word of God came"
above.
37, 38.] Having put the
charge of blasphemy aside, our Lord again
has recourse to the testimony of His works,
at which He hinted ver. 32; and here, to
their character, as admitted by them in
ver. 33. If they bear not the character
of the Father, believe Me not: but if they
do (which even yourselves admit), though
ye may hate and disbelieve Me, recognize
the unquestionable testimony of the works;
that ye may be led on to the higher
faith of the unity of Myself and the Father.'
that ye may perceive and know]
The former of these is the introductory act,
the latter the abiding state, of the know-
ledge spoken of. See further in the notes
in my Greek Test. 39.] The at-
tempt to stone Him seems to have been
abandoned, but (see ch. vii. 30) they tried
again to take Him into custody: and, as
before, He (miraculously ?) withdrew Him-
self from them.

m ch. viii. 80: xi. 45.

℗ read and render, perceive and know. g render, came.

i render, whatsoever.

1

render, from Bethany, of the town.

40-42.] Jesus departs to Bethany beyond Jordan, and is there believed on by many. 40.] On Bethany beyond Jordan, see ch. i. 28 and note. 41.] The locality reminds them of John and his tes

a Luke x. 38,

b Matt. xxvi. 7.

Mark xiv. 3.

ch. xii. 8.

timony. The remark seems to have a double tendency:-to relate their now confirmed persuasion, that though John did not fulfil their expectations by shewing a sign or working miracles, yet he was a true prophet, and really, as he professed, the forerunner of this Person, who in consequence must be, what John had declared Him to be, the Messiah. And (ver. 42) the result followed;-many believed on Him. "The word John repeated ver. 42, belongs to the simplicity of the speech, which is reproduced literally as spoken, and expresses the honour paid by the people to the holy man whose memory still lived among them." Meyer.

XI.

CHAP. XI., XII.] JESUS, DELIVERED TO DEATH, the RESURRECTION, AND THE LIFE, AND THE JUDGMENT. 1-44.] The raising of Lazarus. On the omission of this, the chief of our Lord's miracles, by the three other Evangelists, see the Introduction, ch. i. § v. 1. 1. But] This conjunction here is not merely a word of passage to another subject, but expresses a contrast to the sojourn in Peræa, and thus conveys the reason why our Lord's retirement (see ch. x. 40) was broken in upon. Bethany is designated as the village of Martha and Mary,' to distinguish it from that Bethany beyond Jordan, which has just been alluded to (not named, perhaps to avoid the confusion), ch. x. 40. Mary and Martha are mentioned as already well known from the current apostolic teaching (see Introduction, chap. v. § ii. 11). 2.] Another refer

c ch. ix. 8. ver. 40.

d ch. 1. 40.

e ch. 1. 31.

f ch. ix. 4.

g ch. xii. 35.

C

ment, and wiped his feet with her hair, whose brother Lazarus was sick. 3 m Therefore his sisters sent unto him, saying, Lord, behold, he whom thou lovest is sick. 4 When Jesus heard that, he said, This sickness is not unto death, but for the glory of God, that the Son of God might be glorified thereby. 5 Now Jesus loved Martha, and her sister, and Lazarus. 6 When he [had] heard therefore that he was sick, pd he abode two days still in the same place where he was. 7 Then after that saith he to a his disciples, Let us go into Judæa again. 89 His disciples say unto him, Master, the Jews of late sought to stone thee; and goest thou thither again? 9 Jesus answered, Are there not twelve hours in the day? 'If any man walk in the day, he stumbleth not, because he seeth the light of this world. 10 But if a man walk in the night, he stumbleth, because

e

8

there is no light in him.

m render, The sisters therefore. • omit.

¶ render, the.

render, the light is not.

n render, may.

P render, at that time he continued.
rrender, were but now seeking.

ence to a fact which, as our Lord pro-
phesied, was known wherever the Gospel
was preached. This reference containing,
as it does, the expression the Lord or our
Lord, implying, as we all well know,'-
is a striking illustration of that prophecy.
St. John himself relates the occurrence,
ch. xii. 3, being necessary for the course of
his narrative. 3.] The message (see
vv. 21, 32) evidently was to request the
Lord to come and heal him: and implies
that the sickness was of a dangerous kind.
4.] The only right understanding
of this answer, and our Lord's whole pro-
ceeding here is,-that He knew and fore-
saw all from the first,-as well the ter-
mination of Lazarus's sickness and his
being raised again, as the part which this
miracle would bear in bringing about the
close of His own ministry.
is not
unto death] Its result as regards Lazarus
will not be death (see Matt. ix. 24 and
parallel places, and notes):-but (see ch.
ii. 11; ix. 3) it has a higher purpose,-the
glory of God; -the glorification, by its
means, of the Son of God. And this glori-
fication-how was it accomplished? By
this miracle leading to His death,-which
in St. John's diction is so frequently implied
in the word glorification. It need hardly
be remarked, with Olshausen and Trench,
that the glorifying of the Son of God in

Lazarus himself is subordinately implied.
Men are not mere tools, but temples, of
God.
It is doubtful whether these
words were the answer sent back to the
sisters, or were said to the disciples. In
either case, they evidently carried a double
meaning, as again those in ver. 11.
5.] explains he whom thou lovest in ver. 3.
6.] therefore connects with ver. 4,
Having then said this,-although He
loved, &c., He abode,' &c.
In all pro-
bability Lazarus was dead, when He spoke
the words ver. 4;-or at all events before

the messenger returned. 7.] The ques
tion, why our Lord did not go immediately
on receiving the message, is not to be an-
swered by any secondary reasons, such as
the trial of the faith of those concerned, or
the pressing nature of His own ministry in
Peræa,-but by referring back to ver. 4,
-because, for the glory of God, He would
have the miracle happen as it did and no
otherwise. 9, 10.] Our Lord's answer
is first general, vv. 9, 10,-then particular,
ver. 11.
Are there not twelve hours
in the day?] See on ch. ix. 4, where the
same thought is expressed. But here it is
carried further, I have a fixed time
during which to work, appointed me by my
Father; during that time I fear no danger,
I walk in His light, even as the traveller
in the light of this world by day: and (by

Dan. xii. 2.

Acts vii. CO.

1 Cor. xv. 18,

51.

11 These things said he and after that he saith unto them, Our friend Lazarus ht sleepeth: but I go, that I may hSo Deut. awake him out of sleep. 12 Then said his disciples, Lord, Mat. ix. 21. if he sleep, he shall do well. t 13. Howbeit Jesus spake of his death: but they thought that he had spoken of taking of rest in sleep. 14 Then said Jesus unto them plainly, Lazarus is dead. 15 And I am glad for your sakes that I was not there, to the intent ye may believe; nevertheless let us go unto him. 16 z Then said Thomas, which is called Didymus, unto his fellowdisciples, Let us also go, that we may die with him. 17 a Then when Jesus came, he found that he had lain in the grave four days already. 18 Now Bethany was nigh unto Jerusalem, about fifteen furlongs

trender, is fallen asleep. I render, was speaking. render, Therefore.

inference) ye too are safe, walking in this
light, which light to you is Myself,-walk-
ing with Me-whosoever walks without
this light, without Me,--without the light
of the divine purpose illumining the path
of duty, stumbles,—because he has no light
in him.' In him, for the light of the body
is the eye,' and the light must be in us in.
order to guide us. Shut it out by blinding
the eyes, and we are in darkness. So too
of spiritual light. The twelve-hour
division of the day was common among the
Jews by this time, being probably bor-
rowed from Babylon. As the day in Pales-
tine varied in length from 14h. 12m. in
summer to 9h. 48m. in winter, these hours
must also have varied considerably in
length at the different seasons.
I may
remark that this verse refutes the fancy of
Townson and others, that St. John adopts
the so-called Asiatic method of reckoning
time: see on ch. i. 40; iv. 6, al.
11.] The special reason for going, which
the disciples appear not to have borne in
mind, having probably supposed from ver. 4
that Lazarus would recover.
Our
friend] Bengel notices, with what con-
descension our Lord shares the friendship
with His disciples. And the word our
gives a reason why they should go too.
This term, is fallen asleep, might
have recalled to three at least of the dis-
ciples that other saying, Matt. ix. 24. But
the former expression, "is not unto death,"
had not been understood,-and that error
ruled in their minds.
12. if he is
fallen asleep] They evidently understand
the sleep announced to them by Jesus as
a physical fact, and a token of a favourable

u render, will recover.

y render, Jesus therefore. a render, When therefore.

crisis, and think that his recovery will pro-
bably be the result. 15.] "Notice
that Jesus rejoices not over the sad event
itself, but that He was not there, which
might prove salutary to the disciples'
faith." Meyer. The intent, [that] ye may
believe, is not to be taken as the great end
of the miracle (expressed in ver. 4), but
the end as regarded them. nevertheless
breaks off the discourse, implying that
enough had been said.
16.] The
meaning of Thomas, in the Aramaic, which
was the dialect of the country, is the same
as that of the Latin Didymus, viz. a twin.
The remark means, Let us also go
(with our Master), that we may die with
him (not, with Lazarus, as Grot.). This is
in exact accord with the character of
Thomas, as shewn in ch. xiv. 5; xx. 25;—
ever ready to take the dark view, but deeply
attached to his Lord. 17.] Jesus re-
mained two days after the receipt of the
message: one day the journey would oc-
cupy so that Lazarus must have died on
the day of the messenger's being sent, and
have been buried that evening, according
to Jewish custom: see ver. 39, and Acts
v. 6-10.
18.] The geographical no-
tice is given, to account for the occur-
rence detailed in the next verse. A fur-
long or stadium, was of a Roman mile.
Meyer remarks, that the use of
the past tense, was nigh, does not neces-
sarily imply that the places no longer
existed when the Apostle wrote, but may
arise from the word occurring in context
with a history which is past. But seeing
that St. John alone uses this form of desig-
nation (compare ch. xviii. 1; xix. 41), and

off: 19 and many of the Jews b came to Martha and Mary, to comfort them concerning their brother. 20 Then Martha, as soon as she heard that Jesus was coming, went and met him: but Mary sat still in the house. 21 Then said Martha unto Jesus, Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died. 22 d But I know, that even now, i whatsoever thou wilt ask of God, God will give it thee. 23 Jesus saith unto her, Thy brother shall rise again. k Luke xiv. 14. 24 Martha saith unto him, I know that he shall rise again

ch. v. 29.

1 ch. v. 21:

vi. 39, 40, 44. in the resurrection at the last day. 25 Jesus said unto

m ch. i. 4:

i ch. ix. 31.

vixiv.

Col.

4.

1 John i. 1,

2: v. 11.

n ch. iii. 36.

1 John v. 10, 11.

b

d

her, I am the resurrection, and the life: " he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live: 26 and fwhosoever liveth and believeth in me shall

render, had come.

render, Nevertheless even now I know that.

• render, have died.

render, was sitting.

that he probably wrote after the destruction of Jerusalem, it is more natural (as Meyer himself confesses) to explain the past tense by his regarding Jerusalem and its neighbourhood as laid waste at the time when he published his Gospel. 19.] Lightfoot gives an account of the ceremonies practised during the thirty days of mourning. 20.] The behaviour of the two sisters is quite in accordance with their character, Luke x. 38-42: and thus we have a most interesting point of connexion between two gospels so widely various in their contents and character. Stier thinks, as also Trench, that Mary did not hear of the approach of Jesus, and that we must not bring the characters to bear on this case. But this is at least questionable. 21.] This saying has evidently been the leading thought of the four days since their brother's death. Mary repeats it, ver. 32. 22.] She seems to express some expectation of the raising of her brother; but it is too great a thing for her to venture to mention:-possibly she had not dared to form the thought fully, but had some vague feeling after help, such as she knew He would give. I can hardly see, as some have done, an unworthy spirit in the form of her expression, in ver. 22. It was said in the simplicity of her faith, which, it is true, was not yet a fully ripened faith but it differs little from our Lord's own words, ver. 41. The repetition of the word God is to be noticed, as expressive of her faith in the unity of purpose and action between Jesus and God. 23.] I believe these words of our

1 render, Every one that.

f

Lord to contain no allusion to the immediate restoration of Lazarus; but to be designedly used to lead on to the requisite faith in her mind. 24.] She understands the words rightly, but gently repels the insufficient comfort of his ultimate resurrection. 25, 26.] These words, as Stier observes, are the central point of the history; the great testimony to Himself, of which the subsequent miracle is the proof. The intention of the saying seems to have been, to awaken in Martha the faith that He could raise her brother from the dead, in its highest and proper form. This He does by announcing Himself (it is the expressed emphatic personal pronoun,-I, and no other...) as 'THE RESURRECTION' (meaning,-that resurrection in the last day shall be only by my Power, and therefore I can raise now as well), and more than that, THE LIFE ITSELF so that he that believeth in me (i. e. Lazarus, in her mind), even though he have died, shall live; and he that liveth (physically;-is not yet dead') and believeth in me, shall not die for evermore: i. e. faith in Me is the source of life, both here and hereafter; and those who have it, have Life, so that they shall NEVER DIE;' physical death being overlooked and disregarded, in comparison with that which is really and only death. The word liveth must be (against Lampe, Olshausen, and Stier) taken of physical life, for it stands opposed to though he have died. he that believeth in me is the subject of both clauses; in the former it is said that he "though he have

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