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22.

John vii, 25, 80, 44.

yard unto others. 10 And have ye not read this scripture; a The stone which the builders rejected 4 is become the head a Pr. cxviii. of the corner: 11 this was the Lord's doing, and it is marvellous in our eyes? 12 b And they sought to lay hold bch. xi. 18. on him, but feared the people: for they knew that he had spoken the parable against them: and they left him, and went their way, 13 and [they] send unto him certain of the Pharisees and of the Herodians, to catch him in his words. 14 And when they were come, they say unto him, Master, we know that thou art true, and carest for no man for thou regardest not the person of men, but teachest the way of God in truth: Is it lawful to give tribute to Cæsar, or not? 15 a Shall we give, or shall we not give? But he, knowing their hypocrisy, said unto them, Why tempt ye me? bring me a penny, that I may see it. 16 And they brought it. And he saith unto them, Whose is this image and superscription? And they said unto him, Cæsar's. 17 And Jesus [ answering] said unto them, Render to Cæsar the things that are Cæsar's, and to God the things that are God's. And they marvelled at him.

18 Then come unto him the -Sadducees, which say there c Acts xxiii. 8. is no resurrection; and they asked him, saying, 19 Master,

d Moses wrote unto us, If a man's brother die, and leave d Deut. xxv. 5.

his wife behind him, and leave no children, that his

I render, the same is become, as in Matt. xxi. 42.

rrender, the multitude.
s omit.

u render, must.

с

The word in Luke xx. 19 is different. literally, to catch him by a word. ▾ render, denarius.

t

▾▾ omit.

After ver. 11

12.

our Lord's discourse.
comes in Matt. vv. 43-45.
Meyer makes the multitude (“the people"
in Luke) the subject of they knew, but
I think quite unnecessarily. The fear of
the people is increased by the conscious-
ness on the part of the rulers that He had
spoken the parable against them: they are
as men convicted before the people.

13-17.] REPLY CONCERNING THE LAWFULNESS OF TRIBUTE TO CESAR. Matt. xxii. 15-22. Luke xx. 20-26. The parable of the wedding-garment, Matt. xxii. 1-14, is omitted. The only matters requiring additional remark in these verses are,-13.] by a word signifies the instrument wherewith they would catch him: the verb being one taken from the chase. They wished to lay hold on him by some

saying of His.
14. Must we give, or
must we not give? the originality of the
report is shewn by these words. They
wish to drive our Lord to an absolute
affirmation or negation.
15.] a de-
narius (see note on Matt. xx. 2), Mark and
Luke, answers to the tribute-money,"
Matthew. 17.] they marvelled is in the
original in the imperfect tense, and is
graphic. This was going on, when the
next incident began.

18-27.] REPLY TO THE SADDUCEES CONCERNING THE RESURRECTION. Matt. xxii. 23-33. Luke xx. 27-40. The three reports are very much alike in matter, and now and then coincide almost verbally (Matthew ver. 27, Luke ver. 32. Mark ver. 23 end, Luke ver. 33). The chief additions are found in Luke, vv. 34-36, where

W

:

:

brother should take his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother. 20 [w Now] there were seven brethren and the first took a wife, and dying left no seed. 21 And the second took her, and died, neither left he any seed and the third likewise. 22 And the seven [ had her, and] left no seed: last of all the woman died also. 23 In the resurrection [therefore], when they shall rise, whose wife shall she be of them? for the seven had her to wife. 24 And Jesus [ answering] said unto them, Do ye not therefore err, because ye know not the scriptures, neither the power of God? 25 For when they shall rise from the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage; but e1 Cor. xv. 42, are as [the] angels which are in heaven. 26 And as touching the dead, that they rise: have ye not read in the book of Moses, how in the bush God spake unto him, f EXOD. iii. 6. saying, 'I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob? 27 z He is not the God of the dead, but the God of the living: ye [ therefore] do greatly err. 28 And one of the scribes came, and having heard them reasoning together, and perceiving that he had answered them well, asked him, Which is the first commandment I omit.

49, 52.

W omit.

y render, in the history concerning the Bush, how God spake. z render, God is not [the God] of dead men, but of living.

6

see notes, and on Matthew throughout.
23.] when they shall rise does not
here mean, when men (the dead) shall
rise,' but when they (the wife and seven
brothers) shall rise: see on ver. 25.
25.] the when they shall rise here is
general, not as in ver. 23: see last note.
26. in the history concerning the
Bush (so also in Luke)] The words may in
the original mean either, in the chapter
containing the history of God appearing in
the Bush,' or, when he was at the Bush.'
The former is the more probable, on ac-
count of the construction of the verse in
our text. In Luke, if we had his account
alone, the other rendering might be ad-
missible, Moses testified, at the Bush:'
but this will not answer in our text.

6

28 34.] REPLY CONCERNING THE GREAT COMMANDMENT. Matt. xxii. 34 -40, but with differing circumstances. There the question appears as that of one among the Pharisees' adherents, who puts this question, "tempting him "-and in consequence of the Pharisees coming up to the strife, after He had discomfited the

Sadducees. I should be disposed to take St. Mark's as the strictly accurate account, seeing that there is nothing in the question which indicates enmity, and our Lord's answer, ver. 34, plainly precludes it. The man, from hearing them disputing, came up, and formed one of the band who gathered together for the purpose of tempting Him. St. Mark's report, which here is wholly unconnected in origin with St. Matthew's, is that of some one who had taken accurate note of the circumstances and character of the man : St. Matthew's is more general, not entering, as this, into individual motives, but classing the question broadly among the various temptations" of our Lord at this time. 28.] The motive seems to have been, admiration of our Lord's wise answer, and a desire to be instructed further by Him. the first commandment of all; -this was one of the "strivings about the law" (Titus iii. 9),—which was the greatest commandment. The Scribes had many frivolous enumerations and classifications of the commands of the law.

66

Luke x. 27.

Rom. xiii. 9.
Gal. v. 14.
James ii. 8.

of all ? 29 And Jesus answered him, The first [a of all the
commandments] is, Hear, O Israel; The Lord our God is 8 DEUT. vi. 4.
one Lord 30 and thou shalt love the Lord thy God with
all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind,
and with all thy strength: [a this is the first commandment.]
31 [a And] the second is [a like, namely] this, "Thou shalt h Lev. xix. 18.
love thy neighbour as thyself. There is none other com-
mandment greater than these. 32 And the scribe said.
unto him, Well, Master, thou hast said the truth: for
there is one God; and there is none other but he: 33 and i Deut. iv. 39.
to love him with all the heart, and with all the under-14: xlvi. 9.
standing, and with all the soul, and with all the strength,
and to love his neighbour as himself, is more than all
whole burnt offerings and sacrifices. 34 And when Jesus
saw that he answered discreetly, he said unto him, Thou
art not far from the kingdom of God. And no man after
that durst ask him any question. 35 And Jesus answered
and said, while he taught in the temple, How say the
scribes that Christ is the son of David? 36 cc For David

Isa. xlv. 6,

a omit.
b
read, thou hast truly said that He is one.
render, any more.
cc read, But.

29 f.] St. Mark cites the passage entire,-St.
Matthew only the command itself.
31.] Our Lord adds this second as an
application or bringing home of the first.
The first is the Sun, so to speak, of
the spiritual life:-this the lesser light,
which reflects the shining of that other.
It is like to it, inasmuch as both are laws
of love: both deduced from the great and
highest love: both dependent on "I am
the Lord thy God," Lev. xix. 18.
Stier sets forth beautifully the strong con-
trast between the requirements of these
two commands, and the then state of the
Jewish Church: see Jolin vii. 19.
32, 33.] The Scribe shews that he had
entered into the true spirit of our Lord's
answer; and replies in admiration at its
wisdom.
whole burnt offerings and
sacrifices, the things to which the out-
ward literal observers paid all their atten-
tion. 34. not far. ...] This man had
hold of that principle in which Law and
Gospel are one: he stood as it were at the
door of the Kingdom of God. He only
wanted (but the want was indeed a serious
one) repentance and faith to be within it.
The Lord shews us here that even outside
His flock, those who can answer discreetly
(or intelligently)-who have knowledge of

1 Sam. xv. 22. Micah vi.

Hos. vi. 6.

6-8.

the spirit of the great command of Law and Gospel, are nearer to being of his flock, than the formalists:-but then, as Bengel adds, "If thou art not far off, come in otherwise thou hadst better been far off." And no man. . . .] This is apparently out of its place here, as it is after the question which now follows, that St. Matthew relates this discomfiture of his adversaries. We must not however conclude too hastily, especially where the minute accuracy of St. Mark is at stake. The question just asked was the last put to our Lord, and therefore the notice of its being the last comes in fitly here. The enquiry which follows did more than silence their questioning; it silenced their answering too; both which things St. Matthew combines as the result of this day, in his ver. 46.

35-37.] THE PHARISEES BAFFLED BY A QUESTION CONCERNING CHRIST AND DAVID. Matt. xxii. 41-46. Luke xx. 41-44. The reports are apparently independent of any common original, and hardly agree verbally in the citation from the LXX. See notes on Matthew. 35.] The whole controversy in the temple is regarded as one: hence the new point raised by our Lord is introduced as a

12 Sam. xxiii. himself said by the Holy Ghost, m The Lord said to my

2.

m PSA. cx. 1.

Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool. 37 David [therefore] himself calleth him Lord; and whence is he then his son? And the common people heard him gladly. 38 And he said unto them in his doctrine, Beware of the scribes, o Luke xi. 43. which love to go in long clothing, and [8 love] salutations in the marketplaces, 39 and the chief seats in the synagogues, and the uppermost rooms at feasts: 40 which devour widows' houses, and for a pretence make long prayers: these shall receive greater damnation. 41 And Jesus sat over against the treasury, and beheld how the p 2 Kings xil. people cast i money into the treasury: and many that

9.

were rich cast in much. 42 And there came a certain poor widow, and she threw in two kmites, which make a kfarthing. 43 And he called unto him his disciples, and

q 2 Cor. viii. 12. saith unto them, Verily I say unto you, That this poor widow hath cast more in, than all they which 1 have cast d render, in.

e many ancient authorities read, put thine enemies beneath thy feet. f omitted in many ancient authorities.

h render, chief places.

k

n ch. iv. 2.

see note.

rejoinder, with answered. 36.] Observe in the Holy Ghost, "in the Spirit," Matthew," in the book of Psalms," Luke: a coincidence not to be passed over. 37.] whence, i. e. from whence shall we seek an explanation for what follows? And the common people (literally the great multitude) heard him gladly is peculiar to Mark.

38-40.] DENUNCIATION OF THE SCRIBES. Luke xx. 45-47. These verses, nearly verbatim the same in the two Evangelists, and derived from a common report, are an abridgment of the discourse which occupies the greater part of Matt. xxiii.-with the additions of love to go in long clothing, and ver. 40, see on Matthew, where these words are spurious. The words in his doctrine seem to imply that St. Mark understood it as a compendium. They devoured widows' houses, by attaching them to themselves, and so persuading them to minister to them of their substance. A trace of this practice (but there out of gratitude and love) on the part of the Jewish women, is found in Luke viii. 2, 3. What words can better describe the cor

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E not in the original. literally, brass see Matt. x. 9. 1 read, are casting.

rupt practices of the so-called priesthood
of Rome, than these of our Lord? The
pretence was, to make their sanctity ap-
pear to these women, and so win their
favour. 40.] greater-because they
have joined thieving with hypocrisy.
41-44.] THE WIDOW'S MITES. Luke
xxi. 1-4 probably from a common ori-
gin.
41. the treasury] This is
usually understood of thirteen chests,
which stood in the court of the women,
into which were thrown contributions for
the temple, or the tribute (of Matt. xvii.
24). But it is hardly likely that they would
be called the treasury, and we hear of a
building by this name in Josephus. Lucke
believes some part of the court of the
women to be intended, perhaps a chamber
in connexion with these chests.
Our
Lord had at this time taken his leave of
the temple, and was going out of it-be-
tween Matt. xxiii. end, and xxiv.

=

42.] mites, the smallest Jewish coin: St. Mark adds which make a farthing, for his Roman readers: - the mite of an asor, after the weight of the as was diminished, of a denarius. Two, Bengel remarks, are noticed: she might

into the treasury: 4 for all they did cast in m of their abundance; but she m of her want did cast in all that she had, even all her living.

r

XIII. 1 And as he went out of the temple, one of his disciples saith unto him, Master, see what manner of stones and n what buildings [° are here]. 2 And Jesus [P answering] said unto him, Seest thou these great buildings? there shall not be left one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down. 3 And as he sat upon the mount of Olives over against the temple, Peter and James and John and Andrew asked him privately, 4 Tell us, when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign when all these things shall be fulfilled? 5 And Jesus answering them began to say, a Take heed lest any man deceive you : 6 for many shall come in my name, saying, I am [s Christ]; and shall deceive many. 7 And when ye shall hear of wars and rumours of wars, be ye not troubled: [for] such things must needs be; but the end shall not be yet. 8 For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom and there shall be earthquakes in divers places, and there shall be famines and troubles: these are the beginnings of sorrows. u 9 But take heed to your- b Matt, x. 17. selves for they shall deliver you up to councils; and in the synagogues ye shall be beaten: and ye shall be brought

a Jer. xxix. 8.
1 Thess. ii. 3.

Eph. v. 6.

:

18. Rev.

10.

m i.e. out of.

n render, what great.

Pomit.

• omit not in the original.

¶ read and render, when these things are about to be all fulfilled.

r

many ancient authorities have, began to say unto them.

s not in the original. I am he, is more faithful.

tomitted by many ancient authorities.

a literally, birth-pangs.

have kept back one. 43.] more, in God's reckoning; more, for her own stewardship of the goods entrusted to her

care.

END.

CHAP. XIII.] JESUS PROPHESIES OF HIS COMING, AND OF THE TIMES OF THE Matt. xxiv. Luke xxi. 5-36. The accounts are apparently distinct, and each contains some fragments which have escaped the others. On the matter of the prophecy, I have fully commented in Matthew, where see notes: also those on Luke. 1.] what great stones.-Josephus says, "the stones of the building were 40 cubits in size." And again, "for 6 days together the strongest of all the battering engines played on the wall and produced

r Deut. xxiv. 6.

▾ render, take

:

ye: see note. no effect the size and jointing of the stones was too strong for it, and for all the others." 3.] Peter and James and John and Andrew are “his disciples" in Matthew, and "some" in Luke. 4.] these things implies that they viewed the destruction of the temple as part of a great series of events, which had now by frequent prophecy become familiar to them. 'These things about which thou so often speakest.' 5.] began to say-with this begins our Lord's full explanation on the matter. See reff. 8. there shall be... there shall be] By these repetitions, majesty is given to the discourse. the beginnings-i.e. but the beginnings-the mere beginnings. 9.] ye

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