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ity only for a mask. It professes to receive the Bible in gross, while it rejects the whole in detail. It retains a portion of the form of godliness, while it denies the whole of its power. Such are my views of it; and they are not peculiar to me. Open and avowed infidels have had the same. They have seen that the difference between them and the Socinians was merely in name; and they have been easily persuaded to exchange a name that was unpopular, for one in better repute.

our pilgrim forefathers, not a vestige of their spirit is to be found. They have the name of churches still, but the name is all that remains. That elevation of Christian character, that self-denial, that purity of discipline, that zeal for the doctrines of the gospel, that conscientious discharge of Christian duty, which were the glory of our ancestors, have totally disappeared.

Many reasons have been assigned for this change; but the true one, I think, has not been sufficiently considered. Several causes may have contributed to produce this result; but the principal one has escaped the attention of most enquirers.

I have heard it said, that Socinianism has spread in New-England, in consequence of a speculative and metaphysical manner of preaching. On what this opinion is founded, I have not been able to learn. My knowledge that this was asserted has led me to make some enqui

The spread of Socinianism in New-England has often been matter of surprise. The first settlers of that country were men of ardent piety and orthodox sentiments. They fled from persecution in their native land, to enjoy liberty of conscience in a land of strangers. In the haunts of wild beasts and savage men they sought an asylum from ecclesiastical tyranny and oppression. They encountered the dangers of the sea-they suffered cold, and famine, and sickness-ries. I have endeavoured to disthey exposed themselves to the horrors of Indian warfare-that they might secure for themselves and their children the privileges of the Gospel. They formed settlements, they planted churches, they founded colleges. Their great object in all was to establish and perpetuate the pure gospel of Christ. And when they were removed from their toils on earth to enjoy their heavenly crown, they left to their descendants a fair inheritance, consecrated by their tears and blood.

But, how is the gold become dim, and the most fine gold changed!" Scarcely two centuries have elapsed, and a mighty revolution has taken place. Many of those institutions which were formed for the defence of the gospel, are now perverted to its destruction. In many of the churches planted by

cover what kind of preaching it was, that was designated by this name, by those who made the assertion. I have enquired what men were most distinguished for this kind of preaching; what has been their standing and influence; where they have principally laboured; and what is the present state of their congregations. The result of my enquiries is, that the spread of Socinianism is not to be ascribed at all to their influence. These men have not embraced Socinianism themselves. Those places where Socinianism most prevails, have not been the scene of their labours. Their own congregations have suffered least from its inroads. Those inclined to Socinianism hold these men and their works in the greatest abhorrence. These are the facts which my enquiries have disclosed. And with

these facts before me, I have been led to conclude, that the spread of Socinianism is not to be ascribed in any degree, to the influence of these men; but, on the contrary, that the influence of these men has been a principal reason why it has not had a still wider spread.

Another reason I have heard assigned for the spread of Socinianism, is the disconnected state of the churches. In Massachusetts, where it has most prevailed, the churches are independent. But in Connecticut, where the churches are united in consociations, it has never been able to gain ground. This reason appears to have more weight than the other. The disconnected state of the churches no doubt facilitates the progress of the enemy. If a church is independent, and their minister is amenable to none but themselves, he can preach what he pleases, provided his people are satisfied, and there is none to call him to account. But this reason alone is insufficient. In Scotland the churches are closely connected in presbyteries; but this has not prevented the spread of Socinianism there. The great cause must lie deeper. If the church is independent, a corrupt minister cannot be imposed upon it, or continued in it, without its consent. The churches themselves have become corrupt. How has this taken place?

This leads me to state what I suppose to be the principal reason of the spread of Socinianism. The churches themselves became corrupt. But the change was not effected in a moment.

Its progress was slow and gradual. They once had orthodox creeds, orthodox ministers, and orthodox members. Now they have not. In those places where once was offered the incense of prayer and praise to the Lord Jesus, as God equal with the Father, the same Lord Jesus is

now represented as a mere inan a fallible, peccable man, and th worship of Him is denounced a idolatry. In those places where once the Holy Ghost was suppli cated to change the hearts of sin ners, it is now represented that there is no Holy Ghost, and sinners need no change of heart. In the same places where salvation was once proclaimed for lost sinners, through the blood of atonement, it is now represented that men are by nature good, and need no atonement for their sins but such as themselves can make.

Those who began this change, would have shrunk with horror from such a result. They meant no harm. They began to think that their fathers had been too rigid in their views, and that a more liberal policy ought to be pursued.— They thought the doctrinal views of their fathers were right in the main, but began to suspect they had strained some points a little too far. They thought their fathers had been too strict in the admission of members, and that the doors of the church ought to be opened a little wider. They knew many, for whom they could not but entertain a charitable hope as Christians, although they did not exactly agree with them in all things. In the ardour of their kind feelings, they could not bear to refuse the privileges of the Church to these, but longed to take them to their bosoms. By degrees, numbers got into the church, who did not cordially assent to their orthodox creeds, and these were reformed or disregarded. The tone of doctrinal preaching and family instruction was softened down to suit the spirit of the times. The public mind would not bear the same strain of preaching as in days of yore. The doctrines of the Bible were thought to have little or no connexion with the religion of the

heart; and the preaching of practitical duties was thought to be all de that was necessary. When their orthodox Ministers died, they looked out for a successor, whose views were as liberal as their own. I say, when their orthodox Ministers died, for they had not learnt the modern art of expelling a Minister from their pulpit, for honestly preaching what he believed, and what they all professed to believe. Thus, the progress of error was slow; but it was not the less sure. The preaching of every successive Minister was a step farther from the standard of their ancestors; and every succeeding generation knew less of the truths of the gospel. The high Calvinism of the pilgrims soon gave place to that strange mixture of truth and error,

denominated moderate Calvinism. This sunk down by degrees into a compound of Antinomianism and Arminianism. From this the step was short and easy into Arianism, and last of all into Socinianism.Men of the three last grades have acted together for years, under the denomination of the Liberal Party. More recently, those of the two last grades have assumed the name of Unitarians. Perhaps few of the churches originally planted by the pilgrims have become open and avowed Socinians. Many are yet in different stages of their progress. Some have remained firm and unshaken.

Utica Christ. Repos.
[To be continued.]


Luke xvi. 9. And I say unto you make

answer is found in the last clause of the verse: "that when ye fail,

is yourselves friends of he mammon of (i. e. leave this world,) they may

arighteousness; that when ye fail, they way receive you into everlasting habita

Our Lord gave this exhortation to his disciples, at the close of the parable of the unjust steward.According to the theology of the Heathen, Mammon was the god of plenty; and hence, in process of time, this name was used figuratively, to signify riches. By Mammon, our Lord obviously means, riches, or worldly goods. But why does he say, the Mammon of unrighteousness? Two reasons may be assigned: 1st, Because riches are generally the idol of unright⚫ous men: and 2dly, because they are so often obtained by fraud and injustice, and abused as the means of corruption and oppression. - Of, i. e. with, or in the proper use of riches, or worldly substance, Christ exhorts his Disciples to make friends. Here the question arisesFriends of whom? The

receive you into everlasting habitations. The friends to be made, by the proper use of the good things of this life, are such, as may, hereafter, receive or welcome the faithful disciples of Christ to the mansions of eternal blessedness. And these are all the good beings in the universe. When men honour the Lord with their substance,' by expending such a portion of it as he requires, in maintaining his worship and ordinances, diffusing his word, and administering to the necessities of his poor, they make Him their friend. And by such an expression of love to God and benevolence to men, they cannot fail to make friends of all creatures, who bear the moral image of Him, 'who is love.' And, when they die, their liberal souls will be welcomed to heaven by holy Angels, and the spirits of the just made perfect; by the Father of lights,

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even infants are subject to death and if saved, are saved by the in tervention of Christ, and by th

REPLY TO A QUESTION. If, according to Rom. v. 18, 19, the free gift came upon all men to justification of life. why are not all men saved? And if, as we believe, all men are sin-renewing of the Holy Ghost. Thos ners, why does the apostle use the term many, applying it both to sinners and the righteous?


who live to act for themselves invariably walk in the footsteps o their father Adam.-On the othe hand, Christ, by his death for the ungodly, opened the way of life t a ruined and condemned world We have not time to trace the

ence. Suffice it to say, that the apostle is employed in drawing this comparison, from the beginning o the 12th verse to the end of thi chapter.

To show that there is no contradiction between this passage and other parts of the sacred volume, it is not necessary to resort to criti-points of resemblance or of differ cism, upon the terms all and many. No doubt the apostle includes as large a number, when he uses the one term, as when he employs the other. When he says all men, he means what he says, all the human family. When he speaks of many, or more properly the many, we learn from the context that his expression is universal, including the whole human race. He uses both terms in reference, both to the whole race in their natural state of sin and ruin without a remedy, and the same race under a dispensation of mercy. Many are dead, and judgment hath come upon all men to condemnation; the gift hath abounded unto many, and the free gift hath come upon all men unto justification of life.

The apostle draws a comparison between Adam and Christ; shewing wherein they resembled each other, and wherein they differed. Sin and death entered the world by the sin of Adam, and passed upon all men, because all sinned; partook of his spirit of revolt, and imitated his example. blood was attainted for rebellion," and he begat sons, and they others, in his sinful likeness. So that'


It may throw some light on the question before us, if we remark that the grand work of Christ which he here brings to view, is his atonement, mentioned in the 11t verse. It is by the atonement that Christ hath opened the fountain of grace to all the ends of the earth a fact which is to be proclaimed to all nations by the gospel and the ministry of reconciliation. And who does not believe that Christ died for all; that he has, by his atonement, opened a way for the pardon and salvation of the whole world of the ungodly? God gave his Son to be a sacrifice; and it was a free gift; and it is of the riches of his grace, that God proffers mercy for Christ's sake. Thus, the free gift hath come upon all men unto justification of life. Not that all, or any, are pardoned and justified without repentance and faith; but that all are called upon to repent and believe, and thus receive remission of sins, and an inheritance among them who are not only

called but sanctified. The apostle does not say, that all men accept the gift, obey the gospel, and are or will be justified and saved. He simply declares that the atonement has made all things ready, and that whoever will may come. He was so filled with this delightful theme, that he did not probably reflect on the possibility that inferences might be drawn from his statement, contrary to clear and abundant declarations of other scriptures. Nevertheless, he uses a restrictive term in the 17th verse, which clearly implies that some would not receive Christ, and of course would perish in their sins. When he adverts to fruits of the Saviour's compassion, nbsequent to the offer of salvation; those fruits which are peculiar to believers, he confines his expression to them, and does not include all

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So he commences the succeeding chapter with earnest and powerful exhortations to his readers, not to apply the riches of Christ's righteousness and grace to themselves, while they continue in sin; while they are not freed from. sin; while they do not walk in newness of life. Until therefore we can have evidence that none have lived and died in sin, neglecting the great salvation: until those numerous parts of the bible, which declare the necessity of repentance and faith, are repealed, and all those which assure us some will experience the wrath of the Lamb in the great day; until then, we must think that something more is necessary for salvation, than having the free gift proffered to us, and eternal life laid before us for our acceptance.

The sum of our exposition is, that as none are condemned as transgressors of the moral law, for the offence of Adam, without their own sin, so none partake of the salvation of Christ unto eternal life, without they repent and believe in him. The way is prepared for all; the apostle asserts no more.

Christ. Mirror.



By selfishness I mean, that disposition in the mind of man, which sets up the interest, honour, gratification, or happiness of himself, above any other object. Now, I ask, what sin is human nature charged with, which may not, easily and directly, be traced to that source? Is a man covetous? What does the increase of wealth regard, but self-aggrandizement and gratification? Who desires what is not his own, but for that end? Whither does ambition tend? What is the

source and motive of envy, hatred and revenge? The man of pleasure, what does he aim at? What gives rise to intrigue, perjury, treason, slander? What impels the thief, the robber, the assassin, the conqueror?

Again, I ask, whence is the reluctance of men to obey the law of God? It is because they find no gratification, no pleasure in the duties which it requires it restrains their pleasures and forbids the indulgence of their passions; therefore they hate it. For the self, and prefer their own pleasure same reason, they hate God him

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