« السابقةمتابعة »
submit to your judgment a paper which I found in a letter addressed to you, among other articles, left in my hands by an excellent young clergyman, whom it has pleased God to take unto himself. I believe the diffidence which is mentioned in the conclusion of it was the real cause of its being withheld, when it was written, from the pages of the British Magazine. That veil has now been removed by his premature decease, and the Christian spirit which his humility and modesty concealed may now be spoken of in the language of truth.
W. MR. EDITOR, I had determined to use, in the church of which I am curate, the prayer appointed in the liturgy for the Ember days, before I saw the letter on that subject in a late number of the British Magazine; not only from a conviction that the united prayers of the church are the most efficacious means of procuring God's blessing, upon all occasions, but because it seemed likely to give my congregation a feeling of personal interest in the ordination of ministers of the established church.
The very imperfect apprehension that prevails of ordination is, in my own, and, I suppose, in other country parishes, a principal cause of dissent. I find no objection made to the doctrines of our excellent church ; but those who do not distinguish the self-appointed from the duly-appointed teacher, and feel no obligation to attend the one more than the other, indulge an itching ear, yield to the natural love of novelty, and, as their plea for separation, state their liberty of frequenting any place of worship; adding, frequently, that they go to hear those whom they most easily understand.*
In my humble judgment, therefore, the use of the prayers for Ember days would be of great importance, as giving the congregation in which they are read a just notion of the appointment of an apostolical ministry, duly ordained, in our church. And this would give effect to the expostulations of their own minister with those unreasoning separatists ; to whom, easy as it is to prove the divine commission, by which orders in the church are instituted, and the duty of unity and submission to its authority, it is still so difficult to impart a clear, practical sense of the value of such a ministry, and of the obligation which attaches to them individually of assembling to join in their holy office.
One obstacle, however, has occurred to me, which I mention with much diffidence, because I feel painfully with how ill a grace anything like animadversion on those in authority will come from a young minister. But till the 31st Canon of our church is more strictly observed, would it be proper for those who officiate in the church to read the prayer for the Ember days at such other seasons as their diocesans shall appoint for ordination? or should they use them only at the times constituted and decreed, without regard to any deviation from the canonical decision of the church?
BISHOPRICK OF PERITH. Sir, I beg to suggest to your correspondent, “ J. H. T.,” (in your number for September last,) that the town about which he inquires, called Pereth, is Penrith, in Cumberland, It is generally called Pereth, or Perith, by the inhabitants.
In the “Universal Magazine,” for September, 1748, in a short ac
* It is obvious how plain, and even homely, the preacher's language should be in a country parish.
count of Cumberland, it is stated, that “King Henry the Eighth honoured it (Perith) with the title of a suffragan bishop:
Should my conjecture be right as to the identity of the two places, I would further suggest the possibility of Pavadensis, or Paradensis, having been mistaken for Paredensis.
I am, Sir, your obedient servant, A NATIVE OF Perith.
APPENDIX TO THE PAPER ON CONFIRMATION.-II.
(Continued from p. 59.)
CANONS OF THE EAST AND WEST.
From the Epistle of Urban I., Bishop of Rome. (Spurious.) 227. ($ 7.) All the faithful ought after baptism to receive the Holy Ghost by the laying on of the bishop's hands, that they may be found fully Christians; Because when the Holy Spirit is infused, the faithful heart is dilated to prudence and constancy. We receive of the Holy Spirit that we may be made spiritual: “ for the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God.” We receive of the Holy Spirit, that we may have wisdom to discern the evil from the good, to love what is just, and reject the unjust, that we may fight against evil and pride, that we may resist luxury and diverse snares, and foul and unworthy lusts. We receive of the Holy Spirit, that being inflamed with the love of life, and the desire of glory, we may be able to raise our minds from earthly things to those which are above, and divine.-Conc. i. 621.
[This, though spurious, is given because cited in the Council of Cologne, 1536. See below.] From the Epistle of Fabian, Bishop of Rome, to the Eastern Bishops.
(Spurious.) 238. (§ 1.) But we find it inserted in your letter, among other things, that certain bishops of your country do not agree with your and our order, in that they do not make the chrism every year on Maunday Thursday, (cæna domini,) but keep for two or three years the chrism which has been once made. For they say,
that neither can balsam be found every year, and that it is not necessary to make the chrism every year.
They err who think such things, and speak rather of an unsound mind than of a right sentiment. For in that day, the Lord Jesus, after he had supped with his disciples, and washed their feet, taught them to make the chrism, (as our predecessors learned of the holy apostles and have delivered unto us.) For that washing of the feet signifies our baptism, when it is perfected and confirmed by the unction of the sacred chrism. For as the solemnity of the day itself is celebrated every year, so the making of the sacred chrism is to be done every year, to be renewed year by year, and to be given to the faithful: because the new sacrament is to be renewed every year on the said day, and the old is to be burned in the holy churches. These things we have received from the holy apostles and their successors, and give them in charge to be preserved by you. These things the holy Roman church and that of Antioch has observed from the time of the apostles. These things the church of Jerusalem and of Ephesus holds. In which the apostles who presided taught these things, and that the old chrism is to be burned, and permitted not that it should be used more than one year, and then charged that new and not old should be had. Conc. i. 640.
[This, though spurious, is given because it is to this that the Catechismus ad Parochos (de Confirm. 5) refers, as authority for teaching that the matter and words of chrism were instituted by our Lord.]
Council of Valentia. 374.
In the canon law, but doubtful. Let the presbyters who govern the diocesan church seek the chrism before the feast of Easter, not from any bishops but from their own, and by themselves, or by one of the same order, and not by one of the junior clergy... Conc. i. 907.
Council of Constantinople. 381. Canon 7. We receive those who are added to orthodoxy from among the saved out of the hereticks, according to the following custom :-The Arians and Macedonians, and Sabbatians and Novatians, who call themselves Cathari and Aristeri, and the Quarto-decimans, or Tetradites, and the Apollinarians, we receive upon their giving libels and anathematizing every heresy which does not think according to the holy catholic and apostolic church; and being first sealed or anointed with the sacred unguent on the forehead, and the eyes, and the nostrils, and the mouth, and the ears ; and when we seal them, we say, “ The seal of the gift of the Holy Ghost."-Conc. i. 951.
Council of Eliberis. 305. Canon 38. Persons on a foreign voyage, or not within reach of a church, may baptize a faithful catechumen in the extremity of sickness, if he keep bis washing entire, and is not a bigamist; so that, if he shall survive, he may be brought to the bishop, that he may be perfected by imposition of hands.
Canon 39. If the Gentiles, in their sickness, shall desire imposition of hands, it seems good that, if their life has been good, imposition of hands should be given them, and they become Christians.—Conc. i. 975.
[Here a part is put for the whole, and the entire sacrament of baptism spoken of under the term “ imposition of hands," the last and completing rite.]
Canon 77. If any deacon governing a congregation shall baptize any without the bishop or presbyter, the bishop ought to perfect them with benediction. But if they die before, a man can be justified by the faith by which he believed. -Conc. i. 978.
Council of Laodicæa. 367. Canon 48. It is right that they who have been baptized (enlightened) should, after baptism, be anointed with the heavenly chrism, and be made partakers of the kingdom of Christ.—Conc. i. 1505. From the Arabic Canons, professing to be of the Nicene Council. 325.
(Of no authority.) Canon 31. If any one be converted to the orthodox faith, he is to be received into the church by the hands of the bishop or presbyter, who ought to enjoin him that he anathematize all who do contrary to the orthodox faith, and who contradict the apostolic church; and he ought to anathematize Arius and his heresy, and openly to profess the faith which we have defined in this perfect Confession, and to be sincerely one of the faithful. It behoves him also to anathemize those who do not believe this faith, and do not receive it. And after he shall have done these things, let the bishop or priest to whose jurisdiction he belongs receive and anoint him with the unction of chrism, and let him sign him thrice in anointing him, and praying over him the prayer of Dionysius the areopagite, [i. e., “ the seal of the gift of the Holy Ghost,"] and let prayer be devoutly made to God for him, that he may receive him; and afterwards he shall be partaker of the divine mysteries and of communion, by which there may be remission of sins.-Conc. ii. 300.
[Though the canon itself be of no authority, the matter contained in it is a true exposition of the catholic practice on this point. See above, the Council of Constantinople, 381.]
Council of Carthage II. 397. Chap. 3. The bishop Fortunatus said, If your holiness commands, I make a suggestion. For I remember it was decreed in a former council, that chrism, or the reconciliation of penitents, and moreover, the consecration of virgins, should not be done by presbyters. But if any one has arisen to do this, what is to be decreed concerning him?" Bishop Aurelius said, “Your worship has heard the suggestion of our brother and co-bishop Fortunatus ; what do you say to these things?" All the bishops said, “ Let not the confection of chrism nor the consecration of maidens be done by the presbyters; nor let it be lawful for a presbyter to reconcile any one at public mass. This pleased them all.—Conc. ii. 1160. See also Conc. Carthag. iii. c. 36; Conc. Rom. (324) c. 5.
Council of Toledo. 400. Canon 20. Although it is almost everywhere guarded that no one make the chrism without the bishop, yet because, in some places or provinces, the presbyters are said to make the chrism, it seemed good that, from this time, no other but the bishop make the chrism, and send it through the diocese ; so that, before Easter-day, deacons or subdeacons be sent to the bishop from the several churches, that the chrism, being immediately sent by the bishop, may arrive in time for Easter. No doubt it is lawful for a bishop to make chrism at all times; but without the mind of the bishop let not the presbyters presume to do anything. It is decreed that a deacon may not administer chrism, but a presbyter may, in the absence of a bishop: but if the bishop be present, not without his command.-Conc. ii. 1226.
Council of Orange. 441. Canon 2. That no minister who has received the office of baptizing make a progress anywhere without chrism, since it has been decreed among us that chrism shall only be once administered. But, concerning any one who, through any supervening necessity, has not been chrismed in baptism, the priest shall be advised in confirmation. For among some [us, some copies,] there is only one benediction of the chrism ; [this is said] not for the sake of prejudging anything, but that it may not be thought necessary to repeat the chrism.-Conc. ii. 1447.
Note.—The first sentence in this canon forms the 27th canon of the second council of Arles, A.D. 451.-Conc. iv. 1014.
Council of Vaisson. 441. Canon 3. Let the presbyters or ministers in all places seek the chrism every year at the approach of the festival of Easter, not according to their own fancy from the nearest, but from their own bishops; nor let them send for it by any mere ecclesiasticle, but, if there be any necessity or business of the ministers, by the subdeacon; for it is indecorous that things of the highest moment should be committed to inferiors. It is best, indeed, that it should be received by the person who is to use it in the administration; but if there be any obstacle to this, at least by him who has the charge of the sacrary, and handles the sacraments.-Conc. iii. 1457.
Council of Auxerre. 578. Canon 6. That the presbyters apply for chrism from the middle of Lent; and if any one, being detained by illness, is unable to come, let him send to his archdeacon or sub-archdeacon, but with the chrismary and linen (linteo) as the relics of saints are wont to be carried.—Conc. v. 958.
Council of Barcelona. 599. Canon 2. That when the chrism is given to the diocesan presbyters for confirming the neophytes, nothing be accepted for the price of the liquor, lest VOL. XII.- Dec. 1837.
the grace of God, being affected by the price of the benediction, confound both buyers and sellers in a simoniacal death.-Conc, v, 1605.
Synodal Decrees of the Church of Rheims. 630.
Probably of a much later date than that assigned. Decree 5. The sacrament of confirmation has the gift of the Holy Ghost, which strengtheneth, and produces more abundant grace; therefore let it not be neglected.-Conc. v. 1693.
Eleventh Council of Toledo. 675. Canon 8. If any ecclesiastic henceforth shall exact any price, or receive any free-will reward, for baptizing and consigning the faithful, or for the eonferring chrism, or for promotions in degrees (if orders), if it be done by a bishop's underlings, with his knowledge, let the bishop himself be excommonicated for two months ; but if a presbyter have done it without the bishop's knowledge, let him be excommunicated for three months, a deacon four, &c. -Conc. vi. 550.
Council of Ratisbonne, or Augsburg. 743. Canon 3. ... and whenever of canonical right the bishop shall go round his parish (diocese] to confirm the people, let the presbyter be always ready to receive the bishop with a collection and assistance of the people who ought to be confirmed there. And on Maundy Thursday let them always receive new chrism of the bishop.-Conc. vi. 1535.
Ecclesiastical Chapters of Charlemagne. Tit. iv. c. 2.... We have decreed that no village bishop presume to give the Holy Spirit by imposition of hands ... for that belongs to the principal, or cathedral bishops, and not to village bishops or presbyters.-Conc. vii. 1170.
Chapter held in the Palace of Aix. C. 21. If a presbyter shall give chrism, let him be degraded by the bishop, and afterwards lose his hand by the judge, if he shall do this for the sake of overthrowing judgment.—Conc. vii. 1177.
Chapter held at Salz. Admonition to the Presbyters by the Emperor. 11. That no presbyter, nor deacon, nor clerk, presume to give the chrism to any one, on any necessity. Let him who shall do so be degraded.-Conc. vii. 1183.
(To be continued.)
CANDLES ON THE ALTAR.
Me. EDITOR-I wish to be informed by “ A Friend to Order," (page 398, in your last Number,) in what part of the Book of Common Prayer" the rubric directs that in all parish churches two lights be set on the altar at all times of divine service.” My ignorance on this point is shared by several clergymen, from whom I have sought information upon it. This must be my excuse for troubling you.
I am, Sir, your obedient servant, R. S. Oct. 24th, 1837.