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claims of natural religion, and shews satisfactorily " that there never has been, and, as man is now constituted, in all probability, there never could bave been, such a thing as natural, in contradistinction to revealed, religion; and that natural religion, instead of being the rival or the equal of revelation, is altogether subordinate to it.” In the third lecture, Mr. V. “inquires into the first principles both of natural and of revealed religion; and examines to what extent, and in what sense, those principles are to be proved, as well from nature and reason, as from the scriptures.” The great object is, to prove that, though both natural and revealed religion establish the doctrine of the divine unity, they do not prove that this unity is personal. The fourth lecture reviews the Old Testament evidence for the doctrine of the Trinity, and is amply sufficient to shew that the Old Testament teaches the same doctrine as the New ; though, as must be self-evident, one lecture cannot do justice to this part of the subject. The three following lectures contain the New Testament evidence. The fifth treats —first,“ Those passages which bear joint testimony to the Three Divine Persons; and then considers those proofs of the Godhead of the Son which arise from the worship received by bim, and likewise from his miracles and attributes. The sixth contains the proof of our Lord's deity from “ the titles ascribed to him in the New Testament." The seventh proves the deity of the Holy Ghost, as it is set forth in the New Testament. These three lectures contain a most masterly recapitulation ; and are perfectly unanswerable, though some most important evidence is here omitted. For instance, in the sixth lecture, in enumerating the titles of Christ, that of “Bridegrooın" is overlooked, which is most important, because our Lord appropriates it to himself, and the Old Testament writers, and the Jews, uniformly apply it to Him who is very God; and again, the application which the New Testament makes to Christ of Old-Testament passages which plainly speak of Jehovah ; and again, the incidental evidence arising from our Lord's employing language in reference to himself which the Jews use of none but the Shechinah. The eighth lecture vindicates the Athanasian creed, and answers “the objection which appeals to the judgment of the first Christians." The references
” here are chiefly to Dr. Burton's “Ante-Nicene Testimonies," and Mr. Faber's“ Apostolicity of Trinitarianism ;” this, though satisfactory as far as it goes, is the most defective part of the whole. Mr. Vogan does not treat apostolic tradition as a distinct line of argument, in itself fully sufficient to prove the point, but merely as a subsidiary to answer an objection, and thus loses one of his two witnesses. But after noticing the defects of the work, which are, after all, rather defects of the plan than of the execution, these lectures are recommended as the most complete and satisfactory manual of the evidence for the doctrine of the Trinity-most convenient to the student for reference, and most valuable, as being popular and intelligible to every one of ordinary understanding, at the same time that the reasoning is so close and cogent as to be worthy of the attention of the most acute. In a future edition, Mr. Vogan may make them still more valuable by giving more numerous references to books where the individual arguments or
criticisms are more fully discussed. Some, to avoid the affectation of pretending to extraordinary learning, are shy of giving references; but English writers must get over this shyness, for, however the appearance may be interpreted, there is nothing more valuable to the student than the knowledge of the books consulted by one who has thoroughly studied his subject; and it is, perhaps, to the habit of multiplying references that the Germans are indebted for the diffusion of extensive learning.
The Two Brothers; a Narrative exhibiting the Effects of Education. London :
Groombridge. Edinburgh : Sutherland. Dublin : Robertson and Co.
12mo. pp. 99. This is the story of two brothers, the children of a loyal country gentleman, something between a squire and a yeoman, who encouraged the eldest in boyish cruelty, as being manly, and always promoted his desire of being a soldier. The young gentleman's youthful tricks, and his exploits at school in ducking and blowing up the usher with gunpowder, are rather more detailed than is needful. The younger brother, of a quieter disposition, is left chiefly to the care of an uncle, who educates him for the church, and trains him in a life of holiness and piety. The elder persuades a comrade to leave his prospects at home, and join the army, which ends in his being killed after a campaign of a few weeks. The story is told by the elder brother, who, after three years of a soldier's life, in which one of his exploits is to kill a quarrelsome companion in a duel, comes home disabled for life-a wretched crippled being, without anything to cheer him on this side the grave. His younger brother, whom his more ardent brother had thought wanting in spirit, after giving proofs of high courage, in saving human life from peril by water and fire, had married a Baronet's daughter, and lives à life of usefulness and honour. The elder, after meditating self-destruction in his misery, begins to turn to the Bible for consolation, and thus concludes his account of himself:
“I read it, I prayed to God for wisdom to understand it. There I have discovered that there is one, and only one, can wipe away the stains of blood on the conscience-he saved the murderer on the accursed tree. I found rest for my soulmy agonized spirit enjoyed a calm after a storm; and now, like the tempest-tossed and weather-beaten mariner, I seem in sight of a new port, and am looking for the baven of eternal happiness.”
The drift of the book is to warn preceptors and parents against what the writer calls "deluding the young by the glare of false glory;' and asks them in the end the following question :"Have you ever
“ thought, while extolling the exploits of warriors— Is war a virtue, or a crime?' and that, for the principles you have propagated, you must hereafter be answerable at the unerring tribunal ?” This narrative, of course, takes one side of this question very strongly, and, most unquestionably, the soldier's life is one of great trial and temptation ; but, unless the writer is prepared to shew that war can altogether be dispensed with, some other remedy must be sought than the abolition of
In one portion of the book there are some very good remarks on the evil influence on the young of such books as Tom Jones, which is classed with Gil Blas, Roderick Random, and Don Quixote. The tone of Don Quixote is different from that of the others; but they, it must be confessed, have often misled the young to believe that atrocious immorality is a becoming portion of a manly and gentlemanly character.
A Handbook for Travellers in Germany; being a Guide to Bavaria, Austria,
Tyrol, Salzburgh, Styria, &c., the Austrian and Bavarian Alps, and the Danube from Ulm to the Black Sea, 8c., with an Index. Map. London:
Murray. 8vo. 1837. pp. 407. This is an accompaniment to the Hand Book for Northern Germany, which is too well known to require further mention. This is not only a book which may be almost indispensable abroad, and perhaps save the necessity of any other guide, but it contains very much amusement and information of a very valuable kind to stay-at-home travellers. It would be out of place here to enter into any detail; but the plan appears excellent, and the information just such as a traveller requires.
An Exposition of the Counsel of God for the Redemption of the World; for the
Use and Instruction of the Young. By the Very Rev. Robert Stevens, D.D.,
Rochester. pp. 253.
“ It has been said that Christianity had its origin in human artifice, practising upon the credulity of mankind; and that all attempts to trace its existence under any veil or preparatory arrangement before the time of Jesus, are so many subtle expedients, resorted to for the purpose of attaching the weight and consequence of antiquity to the particular faith in which we have been brought up and educated. To shew the fallacy of this assertion, and to prove the Divine origin of our holy religion, is the design of the following exposition of the counsel of God for the redemption of the world.
“In going through this subject in a regular consecutive detail of the leading points, it will, it is hoped, be evinced that the scheme of human redemption is much more ancient, vast, and comprehensive, than is apparent to superficial observation; and that it bears evident marks of being, not a contrivance of human ingenuity, but a work of Divine wisdom," &c.
It is, in fact, a summary of the evidence derived from pre-existing prophecies, types, and preparatory institutions. The first paragraph is headed, “God eternal, first cause"-the second, “ The creation of angels, their rebellion, and its consequences”-and so the author proceeds, in regular order, through the books of the Bible, from Genesis to the last chapter of revelations. It is to be feared, however, that this is not a book likely to be useful to the young. There is a peculiarity of phraseology, which savours too much of dry, systematic theology for the very young; and the discussion of the various topics is far too brief for the more advanced. Some of the deepest and most
perplexing questions are started without being satisfactorily disposed of. Thus, on page 8,—“But why, it has inconsiderately been asked, did God, knowing what would happen, create man at all? Or, having created him, why permit him to be tempted ? &c. These questions might be met by many reasonable and sufficient arguments; though the difficulty would still remain of fathoming the Divine counsels. It is deemed wiser and safer, however, to waive these arguments; that disputation may be avoided upon matters which, from their evidently mysterious nature, may be discussed over and over again, without affording satisfaction to the inquirer, or edification to any.” But, if so, why start these subjects at all ? This subject is again touched at page 10, and again 14, 15. Enough is said to set all young persons, who are not stupid, thinking, and to lead them to discuss the origin of evil, eternal predestination, &c.; but who can answer for it that they will stop at the author's conclusion, that predestination and free-agency may be reconciled? Young people readily take in an objection ; but they are, of all reasoning beings, the most difficult to satisfy with the answer. They have not yet learned that there are innumerable problems, for the solution of which we must rest satisfied without demonstration. But there are some other things which must also be noticed. On page 5, &c. it is said, that scripture teaches the rebellion of the angels before the fall of man. Now this may well be doubted : scripture teaches that Satan was the enemy of God and man, and the author of man's ruin ; but of the rebellion of the angels before this period, not one word is said in scripture. The popular theology is perhaps far more indebted for this information to Milton than to Moses, or any other inspired writer. Again, at pages 216 and 199, the author interprets the Revelation of St. John the seals, the trumpets, and the locusts. Mahomet, the Saracens, the Waldenses, and the Albigenses—the woes upon the Roman empire, and the dark ages, all appear as fulfilments of the prophecies. Now, the writer of this notice cannot withhold the expression of his own conviction that such forced adaptations of history to prophecy are far more likely to make unbelievers than to confirm the faith. At all events, the controversy is not yet at an end. Mr. Maitland's two inquiries have not yet been answered. His “Facts and Documents" have entirely altered the state of the question as to the claims of the Waldenses and Albigenses as witnesses ; and the papers on the Dark Ages which have appeared in this Magazine ought surely to lead all considerate persons to cease from the popular cry on that subject.
In treating of the unfulfilled prophecies, the author has fallen into the inconsistency necessarily common to all who wish to speak of the future without losing their character for judgment. He disclaims all pretension to the character of a prophet, and yet announces the future destiny of Jew and Gentile, and the whole course of events to the end of time—defends the literal sense, and yet admits that the mystical interpretation may be true.
“ In holding the former opinion, which adheres to the literal meaning, it is not presumed to say that the latter, which adopts the mystical signification, is incorrect," p. 234.
Vol. XII.-Oct. 1837.
Now, how is this possible ? How can two contradictory propositious be both true ? Interpreters of scripture must make a choice, and stand to it. If they think this imprudent or impossible, then they must leave the prophecies uninterpreted, and choose other topics for discussion,
The History of the British Possessions in the East Indies. By R. Montgomery
Martin, F.S.S. Vol. I. The former volumes of this Library have been strongly recommended in this Magazine, and the author appears to be still pursuing the same track of usefulness which rendered his account of our other colonies so valuable. There is much information in the present volume condensed into a small space; and as the work is written in an agreeable manner, and a good spirit, it will hardly fail of success. There are many statistical details, some of which have never before been published; and these are, of course, a great accession to the volume. It contains a brief history of our acquisition of India—a chapter on the state of India, and the consequences of our conquest of Hindostan,together with details on the physical aspect, the geology, and climate, of British India, and its vegetable and animal productions; as well as some details on the population and the languages of this vast tract of country. In another volume, the subjects of education, government, crime, commerce, &c., are to be treated, and it is of course impossible to give any judgment as to the completeness of the work before the next volume makes its appearance.
Questions on the History of Europe. A Sequel to Miss Mangnall's Historical
Questions. By Julia Corner. London. 12mo. pp. 404. This little volume will prove acceptable to those who prefer teaching history by means of books in which it is treated of by question and answer. Of course, when the history of France from the time of Pharamond to the battle of Waterloo is dispatched in seventy-eight pages, not very closely printed, nothing but the most striking points can be touched upon, and even those only very briefly. Perhaps, however, it may be found useful to those also who are encouraged to read history in the form of a continued narrative, by suggesting questions as to the most important events, and accustoming them to fix their minds on these more definitely. It comprehends the history of France, Spain, Portugal, Germany, Italy, and the Papal States.
A Complete Latin-English Dictionary, for the Use of Colleges and Schools ;
chiefly from the German. By the Rev. J. E. Riddle, M.A., of St. Edmund's
Hall, Oxford. London: Longman and Co.; and Murray. 8vo. The Young Scholar's Latin-English Dictionary, with a List of Latin Verbs,
Tenses, fc.; and Tables of Time, Weight, Measure, and Value ; being an Abridgment of the " Complete Latin-English Dictionary." By the Rev. J.
E. Riddle, M.A. London: Longman and Co.; and Murray. The useful labours of Mr. Riddle in rendering accessible to the English scholar the rich store of knowledge contained in Scheller's Latin