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rant as to assert, that we are justified wholly by works, but then they join faith and works together, and will have these latter to bear a part in our justification. Now, I will evince the contrary. And, this I choose to make a distinct proposition of, because it is the centre of the whole debate, and being once decided, may justly put an end to all future disputes about this matter. The Homily on the Salvation of mankind, says, “our justification doth "come freely by the mere mercy of God, and of so "free and great mercy, that whereas all the world

was not able of themselves to pay any part to"wards their ransom, it pleased our heavenly Father of his infinite mercy, without any of our de"sert or deserving, to prepare for us the most pre

cious jewels of Christ's body and blood." Now, how do they depreciate and undervalue God's free and infinite mercy, who say that good works have a part in our justification! I would here have it observed, that our church doth not say the whole world was not able to pay the whole, but the world was not able to pay any part towards their ransom. But, if our good works have a part in our justification, then, I think, we are able to pay a part, and that a very considerable one too, towards our ransom; yet our church asserts, that we are not able to pay any part towards it. Now, how will our adversaries be able to evade this? Some say, that works done in our natural estate have no part in our justification; but, that works done in the grace and Spirit of Christ have. The answer to which is ready; for we have

not the grace and Spirit of Christ in us, till we are first justified, how then can works proceeding from thence have a part in our justification? So, that you see, our evangelical obedience cannot justify us before God, because this doth not precede, but follow our justification.

The Homily on the Misery of Mankind, bids us, "know our own works, of what imperfection they "be, and then we shall not stand foolishly and arro"gantly in our own conceits, nor challenge any part "of justification by our merits or works." Here, not only merits, (which our adversaries seem ready to disclaim,) but also works, (though they should be supposed to have merit in them,) are excluded from justifying us, yea, from having any part in our justification. And, from this passage we learn, that it is men's ignorance of themselves and their performances that leads them into this mistake; for, if they knew the imperfection of their works, they would never be so foolish and arrogant, as to build their hopes of salvation upon so sandy a foundation. Where then is the self-justifier? What becomes of

the man who trusts to his own righteousness for salvation? Tell me, O thou self-righteous sinner, which of thy works dost thou think so good, that thou may'st safely depend upon it for salvation? I only challenge thee to mention one. But, if thou can'st not trust to any one good work taken separately, how can'st thou trust to the whole sum of thy works collectively? Does not the same sin and imperfection

that taints one single action, diffuse itself through the whole circuit of thy obedience? How much soever, therefore, thou may'st have boasted of thy good deeds hitherto, yet when thou seest the corruption of thy heart, and the deficiency of thy best righteousness, thou wilt be necessitated to renounce all, and to depend on Jesus alone for pardon of sin, peace with God, and eternal salvation.

The second part of the Homily of Salvation hath these words: "Justification is not the office of man, "but of God; for, man cannot make himself right"eous by his own works, neither in part, nor in the

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whole; for, that were the greatest arrogancy and "presumption of man, that Antichrist could set up "against God, to affirm that man might, by his own "works, take away and purge his own sins, and so "justify himself." Here, we are expressly told, that we are not justified by works either in part, or in the whole. What words can be plainer? And, how black does this passage look, upon those who preach justification by faith, in such a manner, as to make good works a necessary condition of our being justified in the sight of God! Do not such preachers forget their Homilies? Yea, do they not forget their Liturgies?

For even there it is said, "We put not our trust in any thing that we do."* Now, how can we say

* Collect for Sexagesima.


we put not our trust in any thing we do, if we trust in part to our own works for our justification? Elsewhere, we profess, "We lean only upon the hope of "thy heavenly grace." How can we make such a declaration as this, if we lean partly to our own works, and partly to the divine grace? Is it not evident then, that good works have no part in our justification? Have I not clearly showed, that this is the judgment of the church of England? Have I not made good my proposition? Is it not as clear as any demonstration in mathematics? Why then do you scruple giving your assent to it? Why do you seek after cavils and evasions, in order to avoid it? Are you afraid of being deceived by the plain sense of words? Why then do you suspend your judgment? Why are you so backward in giving your verdict in so clear a case? Therefore, if you are a member or minister of the church of England, approve yourself such, by receiving and preaching the doctrine which she recommends unto you. Surely, you have more conscience than to deny this to be her doctrine, so long as you have these extracts from the Homilies in your eye.

The scriptures are clear and explicit on this point. Rom. iv. 4. To him that worketh is the reward not reckoned of grace, but of debt. Justification is by grace, and, therefore, works have no hand in it; if

* Fifth Sunday after Epiphany.

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our justification was by works, then it would not be of grace, but of debt. This is what the apostle asserts in the words of the text, To him that worketh is the reward not reckoned of grace, but of debt. This the apostle lays down as a position universally true, and equally applicable in all cases. If we work for life, and acquire it by our works, then the reward, i. e. Eternal glory, is not a grace, or free gift, which God gives us, but a debt which he owes us. The servant who works for hire, must have his wages, after he hath done his work; and he doth not look upon his wages as a gift or gratuitous donation, but as a just debt which his master is obliged to pay him. This exactly represents the case; and hence it follows, that all works, whether ritual, moral, or evangelical, are excluded from the office of justifying us before God, seeing the reward would be equally of debt, whether we should suppose it to be conferred in consequence of any or of all of these. And hence, too, it easily appears that works can have no part in our justification; for just as far as you allow your good works to bear part therein, so far you make the reward to be of debt, and not of grace; but the reward is wholly of grace, it is not of debt in the least measure or degree, and, therefore, works can have no hand at all in procuring it.

The apostle argues nearly in the same manner, chap. iv. ver. 16. and chap. xi. ver. 6. Therefore, it is of faith, that it might be by grace. And if by grace, then it is no more of works; otherwise grace is no more

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