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leeks in their hats, to distinguish themselves, by order of Saint David. Another account adds, that they were fighting under their King Cadwallo, near a field that was replenished with that vegetable.
2. SAINT CHAD.
Saint Ceadda or Chad, educated in the monastery of Lindisfarne, under Saint Aidan, was afterwards Bishop of Lichfield, and died in the great pestilence of 673.
*4. 1461.-EDWARD IV BEGAN TO REIGN. When Edward ascended the throne, he was one of the handsomest men in England, and perhaps in Europe. His noble mien, his free and easy way, his affable carriage, won the hearts of all at first sight. These qualities gained him esteem and affection, which stood him in great stead in several circumstances of his life. For some time he was exceedingly liberal; but at length he grew covetous, not so much from his natural temper, as out of a necessity to bear the immediate expenses which his pleasures ran him into.
Though he had a great deal of wit, and a sound judgment, he committed several oversights. But the crimes Edward is most justly charged with, are his cruelty, perjury, and incontinence. first appears in the great number of princes and lords he put to death on the scaffold, after he had taken them in battle. If there ever was reason to show mercy in case of rebellion, it was at that fatal time, when it was almost impossible to stand neuter, and so difficult to choose the justest side between the two houses that were contending for the crown.-Rapin.
Perpetua, a noble lady of Carthage, only twentytwo years of age, suffered martyrdom in 203, by order of Minutius Firmianus, under the persecution of the Emperor Severus. In the amphitheatre, Perpetua was exposed to the attacks of a wild cow, and, after
being much gored by this animal, she languished for some time under the wounds given her by a young and unskilful gladiator.
*8. 1702.—QUEEN ANNE BEGAN TO REIGN. Anne Stuart, Queen of Great Britain, was one of the best and greatest monarchs that ever filled that throne. What was most remarkable, was a clear harmonious voice, always admired in her graceful delivery of her speeches to parliament, insomuch, that it used to be a common saying in the mouth of every one, that her very speech was music.' Good-nature, the true characteristic of the Stuarts, predominated in her temper, which was a compound of benevolence, generosity, indolence, and timidity, but not without a due sensibility of any slight which she thought was offered to her person or her dignity; to these all her actions, both as a monarch and as a woman, may be ascribed; these were the sources both of her virtues and her failings: her greatest blessing upon earth was that entire union of affections and inclinations between her and her royal consort, which made them a perfect pattern of conjugal love. She was a fond and tender mother, an easy and indulgent mistress, and a most gracious sovereign; but she had more than once reason to repent her giving up her heart, and trusting her secrets without reserve to her favourites. She retained to the last the principle of that true religion which she had imbibed early; being devout without affectation, and charitable without ostentation. She had a great reverence for clergymen eminent for learning and good lives, and was particularly beneficent to the poorer sort of them, of which she left an evidence which bears her name, and will perpetuate both that and her bounty to all succeeding generations.-Chamberlaine.
12. SAINT GREGORY.
Saint Gregory, surnamed the Great, was born about the year 540. He was consecrated Pope about
the year 590, and died in 604. Before his advancement to the see, Gregory projected the conversion of the English nation; and, although his offer to this effect was at first refused, he accomplished his wishes after he assumed the papal chair.
*14. 1803.-KLOPSTOCK DIED.
The middle or fourth Sunday in Lent was formerly called the Sunday of the five Loaves, the Sunday of Bread, and the Sunday of Refreshment, in allusion to the gospel appointed for this day. It was also named Rose-Sunday, from the pope's carrying a golden rose in his hand, which he exhibited to the people in the streets as he went to celebrate the eucharist, and at his return. Mothering Sunday is another name attached to this day, from the practice, in Roman Catholic times, of people visiting their mother-church on Midlent Sunday. Hence, perhaps, the custom now existing in some parts of England, of children visiting their parents, and presenting them with money, trinkets, or some other trifle. Furmety is commonly a rural repast on this day. It is made of whole grains of wheat first parboiled, and then put into and boiled in milk, sweetened, and seasoned with spices.
The tutelar saint of Ireland was born in the year 371, in a village called Bonaven Taberniæ, probably Kilpatrick, in Scotland, between Dunbriton and Glasgow. Being successively ordained deacon, priest, and bishop, he received the apostolical benediction from Pope Celestine, and was sent by him, about the beginning of the year 432, to preach the gospel in Ireland. He died at the good old age of 123, and was buried at Down, in Ulster.
The shamrock is said to be worn by the Irish, upon the anniversary of this saint, for the following reason: When he preached the gospel to the Pagan Irish, he illustrated the doctrine of the Trinity by showing
them a trefoil, or three-leaved grass, with one stalk; which operating to their conviction, the shamrock, which is a bundle of this grass, was ever afterwards worn upon this saint's anniversary, to commemorate the event.-Brand.
The Order of St. Patrick was instituted by his present Majesty, in the year 1783.
18.-EDWARD, King of thE WEST SAXONS.
He was the son of Edgar, who first united the heptarchy into one kingdom; after whose death, in the year 975, Edward succeeded to the throne at twelve years of age, but did not enjoy it more than two or three years. Being on a visit to Elfrida, his motherin-law, at Corfe Castle, in Dorsetshire, he was, by her orders, stabbed in the back while drinking a cup of wine; that her son Etheldred, his half-brother, might take his place. By the monks this cruel murder has been esteemed a martyrdom, probably on account of this king's attachment to them. The festival was first appointed by Pope Innocent IV, in 1245.
*20. 1727.-SIR ISAAC NEWTON DIed.
That now he wanders through those endless worlds
*21. 1785.-HENRY KIRKE WHITE BORN.
Untimely, withered by the northern gale.
Whose opening bloom, 'mid many an adverse blast,
Yet was not thy departing immature?
And pure in spirit, as the blest are pure;
21. SAINT BENEDICT.
Benedict, or Bennet, was born at Norcia in Italy, about the year 480, and of an honourable family. Being sent by his parents to Rome to complete his studies, he became disgusted with the licentiousness of the Roman youth, and retired to the mountain of Subiaco, about forty miles from the city. Bennet was now only fifteen, and lived for three years in a cave, Romanus, a monk, giving him provisions: these were let down by a rope, with a bell affixed, to give notice to the holy recluse. Bennet founded the monastery of Casino, in 529: it was built on the brow of a very high mountain, on the top of which there was an old temple of Apollo, surrounded with a grove. The Benedictine order of monks, first instituted by our saint, was, in the ninth century, at its height of glory.
23.-FIFTH SUNDAY IN LENT.
Dominica in Passione, or Passion Sunday, was the name given to this day in missals; as the church now began to advert to the sufferings of Christ. In the north, it is called Carling Sunday, and grey peas, first steeped a night in water, and fried with butter, form the usual repast.