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racters of all the eminent men of the nation: he studied fortification, and understood the mint well. He knew the harbours in all his dominions, with the depth of the water, and way of coming into them. He understood foreign affairs so well, that the ambassadors who were sent into England published very extraordinary things of him in all the courts of Europe.
Edward had great quickness of apprehension; but, being distrustful of his memory, he took notes of every thing he heard (that was considerable) in Greek characters, that those about him might not understand what he writ, which he afterwards copied out fair in the journal that he kept. His virtues were wonder-ful when he was made to believe that his uncle was guilty of conspiring the death of the other counsellors, he upon that abandoned him. He was very merciful in his nature, which appeared in his unwillingness to sign the warrant for burning the maid of Kent.
He took care to have his debts well paid, reckoning that a prince who breaks his faith, and loses his credit, has thrown up that which he can never recover, and made himself liable to perpetual distrust and extreme contempt. He took special care of the petitions that were given him by poor and oppressed people. But his great zeal for religion crowned all the rest-it was not an angry heat about it that actuated him, but it was a true tenderness of conscience, founded on the love of God and his neighbour. These extraordinary qualities, set off with great sweetness and affability, made him universally beloved by his people. Edward expired at Greenwich, in the sixteenth year of his age and the seventh of his reign.-Burnet.
*28. 1596.-SIR FRANCIS DRAKE DIEd.
30. KING CHARLES I, MARTYR.
King Charles I was beheaded on this day. Some interesting particulars of his execution, and of the
finding of his body, are detailed in T. T. for 1815, p. 16, and in our last volume, pp. 6-10.
A brutal and unmanly insult to the memory of this martyred sovereign was offered by the adherents of Cromwell in the institution of the CALVES' HEAD CLUB, the orgies of which were celebrated so late as the year 1735.
*30. 1641.-CHILLINGWORTH DIED.
In JANUARY 1817.
Obliquity of the Ecliptic.
We have already explained (See T. T. for 1816, p. 16) the method by which this great circle of the heavens, denominated the Ecliptic, was first ascertained; and we shall make such further remarks on the subject, in our observations for next month, as are requisite to give the young astronomical student a clear view of its inclination to the equator, and the variations to which this inclination is subject. The following table shows the obliquity for various epochs during the present year.
Obliquity of the Ecliptic for 1817.
Having explained the meaning and application of the Equation of Time in our former volumes (see T. T. for 1814, p. 60; and for 1816, p. 19), we shall only observe here, that the following table shews what is to be added to apparent time in order to obtain mean time, on every fifth day of the present
Wednesday 1st, to the time on the dial add 3 56
The Sun enters the sign Aquarius at 56 m. past 7 in the morning of the 20th of January; and the following table shews the time of his rising and setting for every fifth day of the month. The time for any intermediate day must be found by proportion, in the same manner as in the example for the equation of time in the Astronomical Occurrences for next month.
Of the Rising and Setting of the Sun for every fifth Day.
January 1, Sun rises 5 m. after 8. Sets 55 m. after 3
The Moon will be full at 44 m. past 12 o'clock on the 3d of January; she will enter her last quarter at 42 m. after 11 of the morning on the 10th ; the change or New Moon will take place at 38 m. after 12 on the 17th; and her first quarter will commence at 43 m. past 11 o'clock in the morning of the 25th of the month. The Moon may be seen on the first meridian of this country on the following days of this month, at a convenient time for observation, viz. 1st day, at 36 m. after 10 at night.
6 in the evening.
At 4 m. past 3 o'clock in the morning of the 12th the Moon will be in conjunction with the star marked in the sign Libra; at 8 m. after 10 in the morning of the 13th the Moon and the star marked ẞ in Scorpio will also be in conjunction. At 4 m. after 2 in the afternoon of the 13th the Moon and Jupiter will be in conjunction; and at 17 m. past 8 on the morning of the 14th she will be in conjunc tion with the Georgium Sidus; and, at 28 m. past midnight of the same day, with Mars. The conjunctions above stated are such as will appear at the Royal Observatory, at the respective times, if the weather be favourable.
Mercury will be at its greatest elongation on the 24th of the month. There will be only one eclipse of Jupiter's first satellite visible this month in the neighbourhood of London, and this will happen on the 21st, when the immersion will take place at 41 m. past 5 in the morning. There will also be one eclipse of Jupiter's second satellite on the 25th; and the immersion will take place at 39 m. after 6 o'clock in the morning.
On the Importance and Utility of Astronomy.
BEFORE we can form an accurate judgment of any science, it is necessary to have some acquaintance with its nature, principles, and design; and such knowledge we trust our former volumes are calculated to convey on the subject of ASTRONOMY.
In the Introduction to the volume of T. T. for 1815, we briefly adverted to the dignity of astronomy; and as our readers are now better prepared to comprehend our observations and appreciate our labours, we shall avail ourselves of the present oppor! tunity to offer a few remarks on the importance and utility of this sublime science: in the performance of which it is not our intention to amuse the inquisitive by soaring into the regions of fruitless spe
culation, but to bring the subject home to the business and bosoms' of our readers.
On viewing the results of astronomy in connection with the common affairs of life, numerous examples of their practical utility immediately present themselves. A knowledge of the seasons is indispensable to the proper cultivation of the earth; as it not only guides the labours of the husbandman, but regulates his expectations, excites his hopes, and allays his fears. But this knowledge can only be obtained by searching in the heavens for those invariable signs with which the seasons are so closely connected, and which always announce their return. Custom, however, now supplies the place of observation, and the exertions of the learned have, in this respect, greatly diminished the vigilance of the laborious members of society; but if we retrace the steps by which astronomy has attained its present perfection, until we arrive at those ages when the tiller of the ground was not only dependent upon himself for executing the labours of the field, but for ascertaining the proper time for their performance, we shall immediately perceive the advantages which the cultivation of the earth has received from the science of the heavens.
The rising of the dog star at the same time as the Sun announced to the Egyptians the overflowing of the Nile, upon which their seed-time, and consequently their harvest, depended; and thus also Arcturus, Orion, and the Pleiades, pointed out the seasons to the Greeks. Ancient poets and historians also furnish numerous examples from which we may learn that several of the most polished nations of antiquity had no other calendars than the records of a few similar observations on the risings and settings of some particular stars. The rudiments of astronomy and the labours of husbandry then went hand in hand, and which is still the case with those people who have emerged