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ON THE UNITY OF THE DIVINE BEING.
"There is one God."-MARK Xii. 32.
1. AND as there is one God, so there is one religion, and one happiness for all men, God never intended there should be any more and it is not possible there should. Indeed, in another sense, as the Apostle observes, "there are gods many, and lords many." All the heathen nations had their gods, and many; whole shoals of them. And generally, the more polished they were, the more gods they heaped up to themselves: but to us, to all that are favoured with the Christian revelation, "there is but one God;" who declares of himself, "Is there any God beside me? There is none; I know not any."
2. But who can search out this God to perfection? None of the creatures that he has made. Only some of his attributes he hath been pleased to reveal to us in his word. Hence we learn, that God is an Eternal Being. "His goings forth are from everlasting," and will continue to everlasting. As he ever was, so he ever will be; as there was no beginning of his existence, so there will be no end. This is universally allowed to be contained in his very name, JEHOVAH which the Apostle John accordingly renders, "He that was, and that is, and that is to come." Perhaps it would be as proper to say, "He is from everlasting to everlasting."
3. Nearly allied to the eternity of God, is his Omnipresence. As he exists through infinite duration, so he cannot but exist through infinite space according to his own question, equivalent to the strongest assertion; "Do not I fill heaven and earth? saith the Lord." (Heaven and earth, in the Hebrew idiom, implying the whole Universe.) Which, therefore, according to his own declaration, is filled with his presence.
4. This One, Eternal, Omnipresent Being, is likewise All-Perfect.. He has from eternity to eternity, all the perfections and infinitely more, than it ever did, or ever can enter into the heart of man to conceive yea, infinitely more than the angels in heaven can conceive these perfections we usually term the Attributes of God.
5. And he is Omnipotent, as well as Omnipresent: there can be no more bounds to his power, than to his presence. He "hath a mighty arm strong is his hand, and high is his right hand." He
doth whatsoever pleaseth him, in the heavens, the earth, the sea, and In all deep places. With men, we know, many things are impossile: "but not with God: with him all things are possible." Whenoever he willeth, to do is present with him.
6. The Omniscience of God is a clear and necessary consequence of his Omnipresence. If he is present in every part of the Universe, he cannot but know whatever is, or is done there according to the word of St. James; "Known unto God are all his works," and the works of every creature, "from the beginning" of the world: or rather, as the phrase literally implies, "from eternity." His eyes are not only "over all the earth, beholding the evil and the good;" but likewise over the whole creation; yea, and the paths of uncreated night. Is there any difference between his knowledge and his wisdom? If there be, is not his knowledge the more general term, (at least according to our weak conceptions,) and his wisdom a particular branch of it? Namely, the knowing the end of every thing that exists, and the means of applying it to that end.
7. Holiness is another of the attributes of the Almighty, All-wise God. He is infinitely distant from every touch of evil. He "is fight, and in him is no darkness at all." He is a God of unblemished justice and truth: but above all is his mercy. This we may easily learn from that beautiful passage in the thirty-third and fourth chapters of Exodus. "And Moses said, I beseech thee, show me thy glory. And the Lord descended in the cloud, and proclaimed the name of the LORD, the LORD, the LORD GOD, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth; keeping mercy for thousands, and forgiving iniquity, and transgression, and sin."
8. This God is a Spirit; not having such a body, such parts, or passions, as men have. It was the opinion both of the ancient Jews and the ancient Christians, that He alone is a pure spirit, totally separate from all matter: whereas they supposed all other spirits, even the highest angels, even Cherubim and Seraphim, to dwell in material vehicles, though of an exceedingly light and subtile substance, At that point of duration, which the infinite wisdom of God saw to be most proper, for reasons which lie hid in the abyss of his own understanding, not to be fathomed by any finite mind, God "called into being all that is;" created the heavens and the earth, together with all that they contain. "All things were created by him, and without him was not any thing made that was made." He created man, in particular, after his own image, to be " a picture of his own eternity." When he had raised man from the dust of the earth, he breathed into him an immortal spirit. Hence he is peculiarly called "the Father of our spirits:" yea, "the Father of the spirits of allflesh."
9. He made all things," as the wise man observes, "for himself: for his glory they were created." Not "as if he needed any thing seeing "he giveth to all life, and breath, and all things." He made all things to be happy. He made man to be happy in himself.
He is the proper centre of spirits, for whom every created spirit was made. So true is that well known saying of the ancient Fathers, "Fecisti nos ad te: Et irrequietum est cor nostrum, donec requiescat in te." "Thou hast made us for thyself: and our heart cannot rest, till it resteth in thee."
10. This observation gives us a clear answer to that question in the Assembly's Catechism: "For what end did God create man ?" The answer is, "To glorify and enjoy him for ever." This is undoubtedly true but is it quite clear, especially to men of ordinary capacities? Do the generality of common people understand that expression, "To glorify God?" No; no more than they understand Greek. And it is altogether above the capacity of children; to whom we can scarcely ever speak plainly enough. Now is not this the very principle that should be inculcated upon every human creature," You are made to be happy in God," as soon as ever reason dawns? Should not every parent, as soon as a child begins to talk, or to run alone, say something of this kind; "See! what is that which shines so over your head? That we call the sun. See, how bright it is! Feel how it warms you! It makes the grass to spring, and every thing to grow. But God made the sun. The sun could not shine, nor warm, nor do any good without him." In this plain and familiar way, a wise parent might, many times in a day, say something of God; particularly insisting, "He made you; and he made you to be happy in him; and nothing else can make you happy." We cannot press this too soon. If you say, "Nay, but they cannot understand you when they are so young" I answer, No, nor when they are fifty years old, unless God opens their understanding. And can he not do this at any age ?
11. Indeed this should be pressed on every human creature, young and old, the more earnestly and diligently, because so exceedingly few, even of those that are called Christians, seem to know any thing about it. Many indeed think of being happy with God in heaven: but the being happy in God on earth never enters into their thoughts. The less so, because from the time they come into the world, they are surrounded with idols. Such, in turns, are all the things that are seen," (whereas God is not seen,) which all pro-. wise a happiness independent of God. Indeed, it is true, that
"Upright both in heart and will,
We by our God were made:
And o'er the creatures stray'd:
12. These idols, these rivals of God, are innumerable; but they may be nearly reduced to three parts. First, Objects of sense; such as gratify one or more of our outward senses. These excite. the first kind of "love of the world;" which St. John terms, "the
desire of the flesh." Secondly, Objects of the imagination; things that gratify our fancy, by their grandeur, beauty, or novelty. All these make us fair promises of happiness, and thereby prevent our seeking it in God. This the Apostle terms, "the desire of the eyes;" whereby, chiefly, the imagination is gratified. They are, thirdly, what St. John calls, "the pride of life." He seems to mean, honour, wealth, and whatever directly tends to engender pride.
13. But suppose we were guarded against all these, are there not other idols, which we have need to be apprehensive of: and idols, therefore, the more dangerous, because we suspect no danger from them? For is there any danger to be feared from our friends and relations; from the mutual endearments of husbands and wives, or of parents and children? Ought we not to bear a very tender affection to them? Ought we not to love them only less than God? Yea, and is there not a tender affection due to those, whom God has made profitable to our souls? Are we not commanded to "esteem them very highly in love for their works' sake?" All this is unquestionably true. And this very thing makes the difficulty. Who is sufficient for this, to go far enough herein, and no farther? To love them enough, and not too much? Can we love a wife, a child, a friend, well enough, without loving the creature more than the Creator? Who is able to follow the cautions which St. Paul gives to the Christians at Thessalonica? 1 Thes. iv. 5.
14. I wish that weighty passage (so strangely disguised in our translation) were duly considered; "Let every one of you know how to possess his vessel (his wife) in sanctification and honour." So as neither to dishonour God nor himself, nor to obstruct, but further holiness. St. Paul goes on, Mn Tabibus; which we render, "Not in the lust of concupiscence;"—(what is this?) It gives the English reader no conception at all. Hades, means any violent or impetuous affection. Evia, is desire. By the two words the Apostle undoubtedly means, vehement or impetuous affections," as the Gentiles who know not God;" and so may naturally seek happiness in a creature.
15. If, by the grace of God, we have avoided or forsaken all these idols, there is still one more dangerous than all the rest; that is, religion. It will easily be conceived I mean false religion; that is, any religion which does not imply, "the giving the heart to God." Such is, first, a religion of opinions, or what is commonly called, orthodoxy. Into this snare fall thousands of those who profess to hold "salvation by faith :" indeed all of those who, by faith, mean only a system of Armenian or Calvinian opinions. Such is, secondly, a religion of forms, of barely outward worship, how constantly soever performed; yea, though we attend the church service every day, and the Lord's supper every Sunday. Such is, thirdly, a religion of works; of seeking the favour of God, by doing good to men. Such is, lastly, a religion of Atheism; that is, every religion whereof God is not laid for the foundation. In a word, a religion wherein "God in Christ reconciling the world unto himself," is not the
Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last point.
16. True religion is right tempers towards God and man. It is, in two words, gratitude and benevolence; gratitude to our Creator and supreme Benefactor, and benevolence to our fellow-creatures. In other words, it is the loving God with all our heart, and our neighbour as ourselves.
17. It is in consequence of our knowing God loves us, that we love him, and love our neighbour as ourselves. Gratitude towards our Creator cannot but produce benevolence to our fellow-creatures. The love of Christ constrains us, not only to be harmless, to do no ill to our neighbour, but to be useful, to be "zealous of good works," as we have time to do good unto all men," and to be patterns to all, of true, genuine morality; of justice, mercy, and truth. This is religion, and this is happiness: the happiness for which we were made. This begins when we begin to know God, by the teaching of his own Spirit. As soon as the Father of spirits reveals his Son in our hearts, and the Son reveals his Father, the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts; then, and not till then, we are happy. We are happy, first, in the consciousness of his favour, which indeed is better than life itself: next, in the constant communion with the Father, and with his Son, Jesus Christ: then, in all the heavenly tempers, which he hath wrought in us by his Spirit: again, in the testimony of his Spirit, that all our works please him: and, lastly, in the testimony of our own spirits, that "In simplicity and godly sincerity we have had our conversation in the world." Standing fast in this liberty from sin and sorrow, wherewith Christ hath made them free, real Christians "rejoice evermore, pray without ceasing, and in every thing give thanks." And their happiness still increases, as they "grow up into the measure, of the stature, of the fulness of Christ."
18. But how little is this religion experienced, or even thought of, in the Christian world! On the contrary, what reason have we to take up the lamentation of a dying saint; (Mr. Haliburton of St. Andrews, in Scotland;) "O Sirs, I am afraid a kind of rational religion is more and more prevailing among us; a religion that has nothing of Christ belonging to it: nay, that has not only nothing of Christ, but nothing of God in it!" And indeed how generally does this prevail, not only among professed infidels, but also among those who call themselves Christians; who profess to believe the Bible to be the Word of God? Thus our own countryman, Mr. Wollaston, in that elaborate work, "The Religion of Nature Delineated," presents us with a complete system of religion, without any thing of God about it; without being beholden, in any degree, to either the Jewish or Christian revelation. Thus Monsieur Burlomachi, of Geneva, in his curious treatise on "The Law of Nature," does not make any more use of the Bible than if he had never seen it. And thus the late Professor Hutcheson, of Glasgow, (a stranger writer than either of the other,) is so far from grounding virtue on either the fear or the love of God, that he quite shuts God out of