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VALLEY OF DEATH.

65

friends themselves assured us, it is stronger now than when they first began the siege, for the Russians have speedily repaired every damage, and have even erected mud batteries outside the walls to fire upon our lines.'

"Now,' said they, 'if you will walk half a mile farther in front we will give you a still nearer view. So we descended into a deep ravine called "The Valley of Death,' and here the shot and shell, thirteen inch, and twenty-four and fifty-six pounders, lay like hailstones covering the ground, most of which, we were told, had been thrown from the Russian batteries during the first day of the bombardment, but now occasionally one is added to the number, not a very comfortable announcement. We then ascended the height, and here we could not only see the streets and buildings of the town, and the whole line of fortifications and entrenchments, but also the flash of the evening guns, and could hear the shells whizzing through the air and bursting around us. The English were firing from their battery a few rods below, and the French had just opened a new battery a short distance to the left; and the Russians were answering their fire from the town. I asked, 'Is it not rather dangerous here?' 'Yes,' said they, 'a chance shot might strike us, or it would not be surprising if the Russians should direct a shell toward us, seeing a little company together

66

THE FRENCH CAMP.

with spy-glasses in our hands.' We then rode across a large ravine, and came to the French camp. They occupy the extreme left or south side of the town, while the English hold the position to the right and north. The French have advanced much nearer the walls with their trenches than the English, and say they will be the first to make the assault and enter the town, and that they will even go in alone if the English are not ready to join them. From this point we had a fine view of the allied fleet lying off Cape Chersonese, watching the movements of the Russians, though they do not venture to enter the harbor and risk a hand-to-hand engagement with them.

“So I set out alone to cross the valley and ascend the hill; and then I saw another hill beyond, where a still better view might be obtained, and having gained this, I could see the Russian fleet, Fort Constantine, the narrow entrance of the harbor, where they have sunk their ships, the walls and fortifications of the town, with perfect distinctness. Yet I saw another height beyond, still nearer, and was advancing toward it when I suddenly came upon a dead Russian lying beside his horse upon the field, and then another near by, and cannon balls and shells were now scattered thick around, and the dogs, preying upon the dead horses, began to bark at me, and the

SUFFERING SOLDIERS.

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battery opened its fire, sending large shells whiz zing through the air. · Just then, too, I looked down into the ravine below, and saw a suspiciouslooking party of men, and all at once it flashed upon me that I had probably gone beyond the English lines. I immediately beat a retreat and hastened back to the camp, where I related the adventure to my friend. It was wise that I had returned, for, said he, the enemy's advance battery is just there, and the Cossacks frequently come over the hill, in reconnoitring parties.

“It is now evening and quite too late to return to-night to Balaklava, seven miles distant. I therefore accepted my friend's kind invitation to spend the night in his tent. We have very plain fare, cold salt pork, hard sea-biscuit, and coffee that is picked green and roasted, and pounded fine with large stones, and this at the table of a commissioned officer in the English army, yet I relished it well since it was most heartily given. As it is clear moonlight I spend an hour in visiting the soldiers in their tents. I found one or more sick and suffering in almost every tent, wrapped in blankets, and lying on the cold, damp ground. They complained of want of warm winter-clothing and suitable provisions, having nothing but salt meat and no wood to cook it, stale pilot-biscuit, and green coffee, and no fire to roast it, and no medical attendance whatever, and yet they

68

VIEW OF THE ENCAMPMENT.

are obliged to lie out in the trenches at night exposed to the wet and cold, and in constant fear of attack from the enemy. The night before six had been frozen to death there, and the night before that the Russians had made a sortie upon them and bayoneted ten others. Our sufferings are very great,' said they, 'but we are ready to meet the Cossacks at any moment, and die for the glory of our country.' I could not but have a great sympathy for the poor, brave fellows. I spoke a kind word of encouragement, and distributed a few Bibles and Testaments to them, which they received with much gratitude and thankfulness of heart.

As I returned home to my tent, the view of the encampment, stretching for miles along the hillsides and in the valleys around, and the watchfires blazing upon the heights afar, were picturesque and beautiful. My worthy host meets me at the door of his tent, 'Do you see,' said he, that smoke curling in the distance? You see, then, how near we are to our enemies. That is the smoke of the Russian camp. They have a battery just across the ravine, and they frequently open their fire upon us, though they have been silent for some time past. Their men and ours often go down to this stream and water their horses on opposite sides.'

“I then proceeded to head-quarters, and called

CALLS ON LORD RAGLAN.

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upon Lord Raglan in behalf of the American Bible Society. He received me very kindly, and invited me to dine with him on the following day. At his table I had the pleasure of meeting the officers of his staff, and an English lady, the Hon. Miss Derryman, who had come to the Crimea to visit her brother, a young officer wounded at Inkerman. His lordship asked me many questions about America, and was much interested, as they all were, to know the feelings of Americans in reference to the war.

“His Lordship lives in a large house appropriated to the purpose, about two miles from the front camp, and maintains grand style with his suite of apartments, and silver plate and service. The houses and stables for his grooms and horses, the large marquées of his officers, and the guardtents pitched around with flags floating from them, form quite a military settlement and a gay scene.

“But it was now getting late, and his Lordship inquired, “If we certainly knew the road to Balaklava, five miles distant,' saying, “the path was quite uncertain at night. We replied with some degree of assurance, took leave of his lordship, and set out on our way. But we had not pro-. ceeded far before a thick fog arose, and soon darkness closed around us. My friend, who assumeil to be the guide of our party, said it was now all confused to him. He knew not whether we wero

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