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have occurred to Mount Vesuvius and the plains of Campania, about the predicted time:-"The sudden "earthquakes were so grievous, that the valley glowed "with a fervid heat, and the tops of the mountains "sunk within themselves; the noise of the thunders "under ground, corresponded with the awful eruptions "above. The sea roared, and the heavens resounded; "vast and terrible concussions were heard, as if the "mountains had met and clashed together; stones of enormous size were thrown up to a height above "that of the surrounding hills. An abundance of fire "and smoke issued out, which darkened the air and "obscured the sun, as if there had been an eclipse; so "that night was turned into day, and day into night. Many felt persuaded that the Giants had now waged war among themselves, particularly as their appearances were seen in the smoke, and a sound of trumpets heard. Others imagined the world was "about to be resolved into its former chaos, or consumed "with fire; some abandoned their houses, and ran into "the streets for protection: others, from the streets "and highways, sought shelter in houses: those on ship-board directed their course to the land, while many on land, ran for safety to the sea."

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IX. The

(1) Post hæc consequuta est maxima siccitas, ac repente ita graves terræ-motus facti, ut et omnis ea planities fervida esset, et culmina montium subsiderent. Adhæc sonitus tum subterranei tanquam tonitrua, tum super terram mugitibus similes extiterit. Deinde mare simul fremere (omne), cœlum una sonare, ingensque et repentinus fragor, quasi montes simul considerent exaudiri. Tum exsilire primum immensi lapides, et ad summos vertices pervenire: deinde magna copia ignis fumique ita ut omnem aerein obscuraret, occultaretque: solem non aliter, quam si defecisset. Igitur ex die nox, et tenebre ex luce factæ erant, putantibus nonnullis Gigantes sedi


IX. The completion of the last of these prophecies will at present be shewn by little more than a quotation from Bishop Newton, and a further reference made to it, when we come to that part of the history of the siege, with which it appears more pertinently connected.

"There shall arise false Christs and false Prophets, "and shall shew (pretend, or promise to shew) great "signs and wonders; insomuch that if it were possible, they should deceive the very elect."



"Very soon after our Saviour's deccase, appeared Simon Magus, AND BEWITCHED THE PEOPLE OF SAMARIA, GIVING OUT THAT HE WAS SOME GREAT ONE: TO WHOM THEY ALL GAVE HEED, FROM THE LEAST TO THE GREATEST, SAYING, THIS MAN IS THE GREAT POWER OF GOD. He boasted himself likewise among the Jews, as the Son of God: Of the same "stamp and character was Dositheus the Samaritan. who pretended that he was the Christ foretold by "Moses. In the reign of Claudius, about twelve "years after the death of our Saviour, when Cuspius' "Fadus


ditionem inter se facere, quod multæ imagines eorum in fumo conspicerentur, quodque clangor tubarum audiretur. Alii existimabant aut mundum in chaos redigi, aut igni consumi; ob eamque causam properabant, alii ex ædibus in vias, alii de viis in ædes confugere, atque e mari continentem et ex continente in mare se recipere.

Dio Cass. Lib. 66, p. 755. Ed Hanoviæ, A. D. 1606. Vide also Jos. Bell. Jud. 3. ix. 2-5; and Newcome's Conduct of our Lord, p. 228.

(1) Matt. xxiv. 24,-Mark, xiii. 6.-Luke, xxi. 8.

So many false Christs appearing about this time, and in no instance before, is an evident proof that the Jews were, at that very time, in expectation of their Messiah.

(2) " Acts, viii. 9, 10.”—(3) “ Irenæi, l. 1, c. 20.”
(4)“ Origen contra Celsum. Lib. 1, p. 372, &c.”

"Fadus was procurator of Judea, a certain impostor "named Theudas, persuaded a great multitude with "their best effects, to follow him to the river Jordan ; "for he said that he was a Prophet, and promised to "divide the river for their passage; and saying these things he deceived many," saith Josephus.' "But

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"Fadus sent a troop of horse against them, who falling unexpectedly upon them, killed many, and made many prisoners; and having taken Theudas himself "alive, they cut off his head, and brought it to Jeru"salem. A few years afterwards, in the reign of

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Nero, and under the procuratorship of Felix, these "impostors arose so frequently, that many of them "were apprehended and killed every day.",

That " many false Prophets shall arise and shall "deceive many," appears verified by what has already been said, and seems also to be fulfilled by 2 Cor. xi. 13, and 2 Tim. ii. 17, 18, as well as from Acts, v. 36, 37, where the imposture of Theudas is noticed, and this of Judas added: "After this man rose up Judas of Gali"lee in the days of the taxing, and drew away much "people after him: he also perished; and all, even as many as obeyed him, were dispersed."

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"Paul and Barnabas found in the Isle of Paphos, a "certain sorcerer, a Jewish false Prophet, whose name was Barjesus;" (he had also the additional name of Elymas, from the Hebrew, which signifies a magician) a man full of all subtilty and all mischief, whom "the

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(1) "Antiq. 20. iv. 1." (2) Dissertation on the Prophecies. vol. ii. p. 12, (3) Matt. xxiv. 11.—Luke, xxi. 8, &c.

When Felix was procurator of Judea, he seized and put to death many of those impostors every day. Antiq. 20. viii, 5.



"the apostle struck with blindness, for endeavouring "to turn away the Roman proconsul from the Chris"tian faith."

Josephus, as well as the author of the Acts, mention the Egyptian false Prophet, who coming to Jerusalem, collected a great multitude; and promised to shew them, from the Mount of Olives, that at his command, the walls of the city should fall down; but Felix sent a body of soldiers against them, when being put to flight, most of them perished.

Thus, the exact fulfilment of the various circumstances which were to precede the destruction of Jerusalem, as clearly foretold the approaching judgment of heaven, as the mission of the Baptist could intimate the coming of the Messiah nor was the declaration of John," that one, mightier than he, was about to come after him" more explicit, than the occurrence of these particular circumstances in assuring the nation of the Jews, when they should see all these things happen, they might know that their destruction was near, even at the doors."

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(1) Acts, xiii. 6, 8, 10, 11.

Vide also Newcome, p.206.. (2) Bell. Jud. 2. xiii. 4.


This is alluded to in the question of the chief captain to St. Paul,-" Art "not thou that Egyptian, which before these days madest an uproar, and

"leddest out into the wilderness four thousand men that were murderers ?” Acts, xxi. 38.

(3) These be the days of vengeance, that all things which are written may be fulfilled.-Luke, xxi. 22.




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A HAVING, in the foregoing Chapter, shewn the awful and literal completion of those prophecies, which re-lated to events preceding the destruction of Jerusalem, in the exact manner and order, and at the time precisely answering to Christ's prediction; let us proceed now, to the fulfilment of this last and greater prophecy, by returning to the history more immediately under consideration,

The war into which Nero had entered, by sending Vespasian and Titus at the head of a strong army against the Jewish Nation; is said by the Romans, to have been occasioned by the refusal of the Jews to give up the town of Cæsarea to the demand of their government: but Josephus has declared, that it was not any unfriendly disposition on the part of the Jews towards the Romans, which gave rise to their subsequent

(1) Under the oppressive administration of Gessius Florus.

Vide Tacit. Hist. v.10.-Bell. Jud. 2. xvi. 1..

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