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We omit his remarks upon the stations at Ewa and Wailua, which are equally favorable. We pass to the station at Hanalei.

"The Mission Station at Hanalei, located between the mouths of the Hanalei and Waioli (singing water) Rivers, is one of the most picturesque on the group. I found the mission buildings in good condition, commodious and neat. A rather novel mode of sermonizing took place on the Sabbath during my stay. The native clergyman publicly questioned the audience in relation to the sermon, and their answers were publicly and promptly returned. I understood the object to be to obtain their undivided attention, and produce a more lasting impression on their minds.

"Connected with this station is a manual-labor school. The number of scholars was sixty. They were all native boys, selected from different parts of the island; they board with their parents or friends, and labor for their own support in part. There are two native assistants in the school, and instruction is imparted generally in the native language; one class is taught English to some extent. The object of the school is to prepare scholars for the seminary, and also for teaching in the common schools.

"The branches taught were reading, writing, composition, elements of natural philosophy, geography, arithmetic, geometry, algebra, sacred geography, Church history, moral science, and natural theology.

"In these branches the pupils had made a surprising proficiency."--p. 209.

We give another sketch:

"As a mission station, Waimea is extremely uninviting. There is no special incentive to any man to go there and reside as a missionary, and a life-devotion to a people living in such a region as that is the strongest evidence that a man is actuated solely by the purest motives for the furtherance of moral good. The scenery is of a bleak and changeless character; the climate is warm, dry, and choking. The eye rests on no splendid groves and foliage-clad hills, as it does at nearly every other station on the group. A comparative desolation frowns back the tourist's gaze. The only feature of physical beauty is the river and a portion of the valley through which it flows.


I spent one Sunday at Waimea. It was one of such a nature as I can never forget, nor can I repel the desire to attempt a partial description of it. On going to the native Church, I found the audience nearly all assembled. A solemn silence and decorum pervaded that audience and the entire scene. The building in which services were conducted had formerly been occupied as a private dwelling-house. It was now in a state of rapid decay; the grass was nearly all torn off the outsides, and the roof was about tumbling in. Through the wide apertures caused by the lost thatch from the side facing the south, an extensive view of the ocean could be obtained, and its foaming surges could be seen at a few yards distance. The missionary commenced the services of the day with a brief invocation. A hymn was sung, in which all the congregation appeared to unite. As their song of praise ascended on high, the everlasting hymn of the ocean mingled with it, and produced such an effect on my own entire being as I had never before felt. The text was announced. It spoke of eternal life and eternal death. Every auditor hung with an intense attention on the words of the missionary. A daguerreotype of that audience, as it then appeared, would be invaluable to a physiognomist. There was every variety of countenance. There were the young, just starting out upon life's great race, but gay and cheerful. There were others who could look down from the summit of life's meridian, with either shore of life's ocean in view. There sat the far advanced in age, their gray locks sprinkled thinly over their deep-furrowed foreheads, and their limbs bearing many a scar from engagements under the standards of KAMEHAMEHA I. In front of the pulpit sat the old ex queen KAPULE, absorbed in what she heard. And, as that dusky audience sat there, with the most profound attention to the words of their teacher, the ever-glorious

sun gilded the sky, and land, and ocean with his matchless light; and there was a continuation of that same ocean anthem, solemn, grand, impressive, as though it felt the impress of its Maker's footsteps, and had opened its many lips to proclaim his presence.

"At the close of that sacred day, when I sought the repose of my pillow, I was wakeful from the most vivid feelings. It was not because that Hawaiian congregation had wielded such a moral influence over me that I had become a proselyte-not that they were more moral than the people in any other part of the group; but that sea-side dilapidated house of worship, the solemn attention of that varied audience, and that same sublime ocean anthem rolled before me in quiet succession. Then came the grand and imposing truth: 'Jehovah dwelleth not in temples made with hands!' and yet I felt His presence that day, in that old house of worship, and in that hymn of the restless waves. Then came the stern conviction that, whatever may be said of the hypocrisy of native Christians, they were not all insincere whom I had seen that day-no, not all! And, as I continued to reflect on these themes, I could not help wishing that I myself was a better man.

"On few topics connected with the islands has more been said and written than on missionary labor. It is an incontrovertible truth, that it is not all a farce! The best mode of testing the truth of this position is for a man to lay aside every preconceived opinion, and quietly traverse the hills, mountains, plains, and valleys, where missionary labor has been performed, and then form an estimate of things as he finds them! He must then compare the present with the PAST of thirty years ago, with just the same sense of responsibility as though things of the mightiest moment awaited his decisions; and, unless I am entirely mistaken in what constitutes an honest conscience, his conclusion will be, that such men as the missionary at Waimea have done much good. It is a self-evident fact, that, to a certain extent, the Hawaiians are morally and physically happier now than they were before the introduction of Christianity.

There is a great proneness to fling around missionary enterprise a few touches of romance and poetry, and this is usually done when a ship is about leaving her moorings, to convey a band of missionaries to a distant region of the globe. There is a good deal of poetry in those throbbing bosoms, and dewy eyes, and warm grasps of the hand, as the ship leaves her wharf to proceed on her way-leaving woods and mountains, literary institutions, friends and firesides, far behind, until they seem to have sunk beneath the wave that reflects the pale and trembling twilight. All this, however, is perfectly natural, and ought not to call forth the least surprise from a mere looker-on.

"But the poetry which invests such scenes is of an abstract character, and more properly belongs to the Churches at home than the stations of the right kind of men abroad. I have seen that in the work of some missionaries on the Sandwich group and elsewhere, which has convinced me that the life of a thorough philanthropic Christian teacher is a stern reality. I found a new church in process of erection at Waimea. For five long years it had been in progress, and the missionary has accompanied the natives to the mountains, fifteen miles distant, to hew wood, and to the quarry, several miles over the plains to the westward, to procure stone. That building was nearly completed when I saw it, and when finished it wonld be a credit to any town in the United States.

"This fabric was only a portion of that missionary's labor; but it will be his monument when the hands that have reared it have gone back to their primitive dust, and the mind that designed it has gone to expand in a clime where there are no evening shadows. When human destiny receives its final seal, such an epitaph as this will be of more value than the thrones of ALEXANDER and CESAR."-pp. 239-243.

We cannot pass over the following scene. The author was hospitably entertained on one occasion at one of the native houses in Waimea. They prepare him a bed and he retires for the night. We give the remainder in his own language:

"But the voice of singing at length awoke me. At first I supposed I was in the land of dreams; but a continuation of the sounds reassured me. Partially raising myself on one elbow, I soon saw that the family had formed a circle, and were engaged in family devotions. They were singing HEBER's magnificent 'Missionary Hymn,' commencing with the words,

'From Greenland's icy mountains.'

At such a time, in such a place, under such circumstances, I frankly admit I was much astonished. Their song of praise was concluded, and the patriarch of the family, with hair as white as the snows of winter, and with a face heavily scarred by wounds received in youthful struggles on the field of battle, knelt down in the centre of the group to pray. I shall never forget his upturned and solemn countenance, his pathetic invocation-E IEHOVAH!' So strictly Hawaiian in its character, and offered up to the true God. I shall never forget the aspect of that bending and devotional family. At this moment I feel an irresistible impulse to record the sum of my impressions created that night by that scene.

“Had I been a disputant against the divinity of Christianity, that scene and its associations, so simple, unlooked for, and sublime, would have put upon my lips the seal of perpetual silence. To that family I was totally a stranger, and they were equally strangers to me. The only thing they felt solicitous about was to have me as comfortably lodged as possible. They knew not that I was not soundly asleep; therefore, in this instance at least, they affected no disguise of their moral sentiments. That act of devotion was the spontaneous gushing forth of feelings at once sacred and grand, for they belonged to God; and that family group only gave what was justly due to the universal Parent of Good."-pp. 251-2.

We quote again:

"I cannot leave Iolé without briefly referring to the new mission church which was in progress of erection at the time of my visit. This was the third edifice which had been erected there by the regular congregation of native worshipers. The first was a mere thatched building; the second was a commodious frame house, which was devastated by a heavy wind in 1849. The one now in progress is invested with something at once permanent and novel. The walls are composed of vesicular lava, which was procured from a neighboring ravine. The sand was brought from the valley of Polulu and the beach at Kawaihae the former place six miles' distant, the latter twenty-six. There were no roads over which a team could travel; consequently, the materials were conveyed to the site of the building in a method entirely new, and each native threw in a share of labor. Some carried sand from the place just mentioned in handkerchiefs, others in their under garments. Others very ingeniously connected an entire suit together, and filled it with the same material, and then conveyed it to Iolé. The lime was the product of coral, which had been procured from the reefs at a depth of one to four fathoms below the surface of the sea. The timbers were hewn in the mountains several miles' distant, and dragged down by hand to the building. In this way the work had been going on from the time the foundation was laid; and when finished, it will certainly be a credit to the architect and supervisor, the resident missionary, Mr. Elias Bond.

"These remarks have led me to make a brief review of missionary character. The life of a faithful and devoted missionary on the Sandwich Islands is one of toil, and hard toil, too. A good deal is required, and much must be performed. The missionary must occupy every post of duty. In many instances he has to turn carpenter, blacksmith, road-supervisor, land-surveyor, surgeon, and phy sician. He must necessarily become versed in the vernacular language of the group. Aside from all these duties, he has to attend to the temporal, moral, and spiritual claims of his own family and congregation. He must be here,

there, and everywhere, so to speak, at the same time. He may be a VARRO in literature, a CHESTERFIELD in politeness; but, unless he can readily adapt himself to the multifarious callings above specified, he is of no use at the Sandwich Islands, and had better be away. Good, practical men-not mere theorists-men of true philanthropy, with large hearts, are the only sort of men needed there. And I wish to be understood as declaring that, although there are men there who in their clerical capacity have hindered the cause of true Christian civilization, there are those who have done their work well and cheerfully; and Mr. E. Bond, at Iolé, is one of the latter number. Their object is to elevate a pagan race. No herald precedes their movements; no triumphant chariot bears them onward in the discharge of their duties. They work steadily, quietly; yet theirs

'Are deeds which shall not pass away.'"-pp. 351-2.

The author's reference in the latter part of these remarks we shall take up presently. We give his final summing up. After detailing the horrid state of the people under Paganism, he adds:

"But it is time we turned from these dark realities to examine the condition of the Hawaiian people in 1853, Of this condition the reader will be able to form his own conclusions from what has been said in the previous pages of this volume. Although, ecclesiastical law is paramount at this day, as it was in the days of old, still no man can sustain the assertion, so frequently made, ‘that the people are worse off than formerly they were, and that no good has been achieved." This language is utterly utopian, and will not stand the stern test of truth. If I may be permitted to advance my own feeble testimony, I am bold to say that there has been a change, and that change has been for the best! I have stood on the very altars where men, as good as myself, were once immolated to imaginary gods; I have climed the ruined walls of temples which once contained thousands of superstitious devotees; I have handled some of the dust of human bones that were once burned at the back of those time-worn altars.

In such positions, I have pondered over the scenes of by-gone years, and thought of the moments which then surrounded me-the ever-glorious sunlight, the vacated temples, the victimless altars, the grave-like silence, the departed priests, the dispersed worshipers-and it seemed as though I could hear, in loud trumpet-tones, speeding over the entire archipelago, the spirit of what had occurred before the first Protestant missionary set his foot on their shores: "LIHOLIHO IS KING, THE ISLANDS ARE AT PEACE, THE TABU SYSTEM IS NO more, the GODS ARE DESTROYED, AND THE TEMPLES ARE DEMOLISHED.'

"Verily there has been a change! and that change has been great, and he who denies it insults his own intelligence and ignores the evidence of common sense. In this connection, the opinion of such a man as Hon. R. C. Wyllie cannot fail to be respected. After a residence of several years at the islands, he frankly expressed himself thus:


"Whatever faults may attach to the government, (and I would not deny that may have many,) the experience of the last thirty-two years shows that it possesses within itself the means of self-improvement, and that in the abolition of idolatry, the reformation of immoral and superstitious usages, the extinction of feudal privileges oppressive to the poor, the diffusion of religion and education: the establishment of a free religious toleration, the consolidation of a free Constitution of king, nobles, and representatives of the people, and the codification of useful laws, the Hawaiian people have made more progress as a nation than what ancient or modern history records of any people beginning their career in absolute barbarism.'"*-pp. 418-19.

* Annual Report of the Minister of Foreign Relations, 1851.

But our author brings many particular charges against the missionaries. He informs his readers that there are several faithful and zealous missionaries; that there are causes of congratulation on the part of the American Board, and its faithful missionaries; that though complaints are frequently made against the missionaries, these are not true concerning all of them; in short, he undertakes to sit as arbitrator between the missionaries and their assailants among the foreign population in the islands. He professes impartiality; "that they have their faults I will not deny; but they have their virtues." Let us examine, then, the charges which this arbitrator of their faults and virtues brings against the missionaries.

These charges may all be reduced to one-the enforcement of a too high standard of morality, both in church and state. We do not propose to go into this question very extensively, nor is it necessary; there needs but a few general considerations to evince how much greater confidence is to be placed in the judgment of the missionaries than in the impressions and convictions of any mere traveler. In the first place, the missionaries are educated and enlightened men, who left their native land, not because they could not have honorably filled the office of the ministry here, but to raise a degraded people to the enjoyment of the blessings of civilized life. In the second place, they are men of pure Christian character, who took up their abode with the vilest and most despised of the human race, not from any impure curiosity to behold the indecencies and license of barbarous life, or from congeniality with their manners and habits, but to transform, raise up, and purify this besotted people. In the third place, they have seen this people under the circumstances both of their past and present state. They are acquainted, from a long experience, with their national traits of character. They have directed their whole attention for years to the best means of making this people a thoroughly Christian people. Now, with the ability, both natural and acquired, to judge truly, with every motive in their character and office to judge honorably, with a full and long continued experience of all the difficulties in the way of Christianizing and civilizing this people, to judge comprehensively and wisely, the missionaries, we have reason to believe, are much wiser, safer, and better counselors than any single individual, who, unacquainted with the language of the people, and without pressing responsibilities resting upon him to examine carefully and deliberate profoundly, presumes to set up his judgment against theirs.

Our author complains that excommunications have been al

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