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covered with herbage, particularly the mustard plant, which reached as high as our horses' heads. To the eastward we observed several excavations in the side of the hills. These are probably the Necropolis, for there are several tombs in this direction, resembling those at Bysan and Om Keis. Finding no path, we re-crossed the rivulet, and proceeding to the north rejoined the track from the Jordan, which we had originally quitted to visit Tabathat Fahkil; from this point we began to ascend, passing occasionally over hill and vale, well wooded, the country gradually increasing in beauty. On our left we saw the spot where Elijah was fed by the ravens.* There are many villages in this direction.
situation, a most extensive view of the
On descending to the village of Adjeloun, we found, in the court of an March 13.-We slept at Hallawye. old mosque, a Roman mile-stone, and in In the morning we continued our the building itself, several fragments of route, and passed through some most Roman sculpture. The next day, half an beautiful woodland scenery, with the hour after quitting Adjeloun, we passed gall oak, wild olive, arbutus, &c. &c., through the village of Eugen; here in great luxuriance, and a variety of are some Roman tombs, and two sarwild flowers, such as the cyclamen, cophagi cut in the rock. From Eugen crimson anemone, &c., on a rich soil. the road led through a narrow and We arrived, in three hours, at a village picturesque valley with a fine view of called Cafringee, situated at the south- the Callah-el-Rubbat behind us. This ern extremity of the valley of Ad- vale opened into a plain, whence the jeloun. There are sufficient frag-road passes through a woody, uneven ments amongst the rubbish and build- country, extremely beautiful. ings of Cafringee to show that there here observed several arbutus of great was once a Roman town or some large beauty and unusual dimensions; the edifice on the spot. We remained trunk of one was about 6 ft. in cirhere about an hour, and then sending cumference. In some instances the our baggage forward to the village of Valonia oak and arbutus andrachne Adjeloun, proceeded, in company with were growing grafted together, prothe principal sheikh of the neighbour-bably from the acorn or berry of the hood, to the Callah-el-Rubbat, which is situated, to the N.N.W., on an eminence, at an hour's distance. About half way up the hill we were shown a great cave, the most extensive one we had seen in Syria; this is, probably, the "cave of Makkedah," in which the five kings were discovered, and afterwards buried. The Callah-elRubbat commands, by its elevated
one having dropped into some crack, in the stem of the other, and there taken root. The Roman road is discernible as you advance into a plain near Souf. We saw, likewise, three Roman mile-stones near to each other. Souf is a small village, situated on the side of a hill, about two hours and a half from Adjeloun; in the vale below it is the source of a stream which runs through the valley. At the fountain is an imperfect Greek inscription, and in the ruins of a church in the village are a mile-stone, and an altar having a Greek inscription. At 3 P.M. we went with three armed natives of Souf to Djerash. We took the shortest
road over the hills; and after taking a general view of the ruins, returned to Souf by a valley lying to the N.E. This latter road is very beautifully wooded, and runs by the side of a picturesque stream, the banks of which are covered with the oleander. We found the natives of Souf a rude set, constantly annoying us with stories about dytchmaan, or enemies, alluding to the Salhaan Arabs, who are encamped near Djerash; this was evidently done with a view to induce us to have a strong escort every time we went to Djerash; for which service they asked two piastres per man each trip. In consequence of all this, when we went again, on the 15th, to Djerash, we took with us the sheikh and ten of his people. We took measures of one of the temples; our escort annoying us all the time with absurd remarks on the importance of their protecting us against the Arabs. During the day two of these said Arabs arrived on horseback, armed with pikes; but they were very quiet. We returned to Souf rather early in the afternoon.
to Jerusalem. The interpreter, however, could only make a bargain with these people to escort us as far as Kerek, as they said they were at war with the tribes beyond that place, and could go no further. As the places beyond Kerek were the most beset with difficulties, there seemed to be little hope of performing the whole of the journey under their protection; we, however, kept them for the present, hoping if we reached Kerek with them, to pursue our journey by other means; especially as the natives of Kerek are mostly Christians, and are in the habit of making their pilgrimage to Jerusalem by the route we were anxious to take. Volney was told by the Arabs, "that there are to the S. E. of the lake Asphaltes, within three days' journey, upwards of 300 ruined towns absolutely deserted; several having large edifices with columns." This was the country of the Nabatheans, the most potent, says Josephus, of the Arabs and of the Idumæans, who, at the time of the destruction of Jerusalem, were almost as numerous as the Jews. Our lamented friend, Sheikh Ibrahim, states in his notes, that three days south from Kerek, in the Wady Mousa, are the ruins of Petra, the capital of the ancient Arabia Petræa. Here, to use his own expression, are wonderfully fine temples cut out of the rock, and more than 200 sepulchres. Since the death of poor Burckhardt, no European has seen this place, or indeed the others to the S. E. of the Dead Sea. Hebron is the ancient Kiriath Arba, and is said to be of higher antiquity than Memphis; to see the site of such a place, excites no ordinary degree of interest. Abraun or Hebron, is the place where Abraham died. The terms agreed on with the Arabs were,that they should conduct us safe to Kerek for 1000 piastres; most unfortunately, Mr. Bankes paid the whole of the money beforehand, and to this ill-advised step we owe all the tricks they afterwards played us.
March 16.-It rained hard, and the natives of Souf refused to attend us any more to Djerash, going over again the old story of their terror of the dytchmaan. In the afternoon Mr. Bankes' interpreter, and the soldier who at tended him as a guard, arrived with a young prince of the Benesuckher Arabs, named Ebyn Fayes, and ten of his tribe. The prince was attended by his mace-bearer; the mace was of iron, hollow, and about two feet long. All the party were well mounted and armed, and as they galloped down the hill, firing their pistols and manoeuvring with their spears, they formed a curious and interesting sight. Mr. Bankes had dispatched the interpreter and soldier from Adjeloun to the Benesuckher camp, to obtain a guard to conduct us to the several places which we wished to visit, lying east of the Jordan and Dead Sea; he had a list of the places which Burckhardt had visited, and a note of his route by March 17.-We quitted Souf with Kerek and Wady Mousa, and intended our Arab guard, and passed the day to pass from the latter to the south in taking further measurements at end of the Dead Sea, and by Hebron | Djerash. It was here that the Arabs
through the ceremony of parading their present before the tent we were in. We never ascertained the fact, but fully believe that it was a mere attempt to rob us of one of our horses.
induced Mr. Bankes to pay all the ing that they would give up one of money in advance, and immediately their own horses, and even went commenced a regular train of impositions and falsehoods, which in the end compelled us to leave them and to abandon the journey. In dealings with these people not a single para should ever be paid them in advance; it should be stipulated that they are to receive nothing till they have completed their contract. They are a cunning set, and behave well when they are kept in check in this manner; but if paid anything before hand, they continually teaze you for more, and when once they have received the whole of the money they consider that you are completely in their power, and that they may do as they like with you; since Lady Hester Stanhope spoiled the market, by overpaying them when she went to Palmyra, few people, going to that place, have succeeded so well with them as we did; and this was certainly owing to our persisting in not paying a single para till their part of the agreement was fulfilled. In the evening we reached Katty, a village lying in a beautiful situation, to the W. N. W. of Djerash, at about an hour's distance. The Arabs here de-cended to Nebi Hood, a village situated manded money to buy provisions for themselves; we were obliged to give them 30 piastres a day.
March 19.-We went in the morning to examine a place called Reashy, but found nothing there of interest. The Benesuckher Arabs refused to go to Djerash, excusing themselves by saying they feared the Salhaans; we were very anxious to finish the plan of Djerash, nothing having ever been published regarding these antiquities; indeed, they were unknown to Europeans until Mr. Seetzen discovered them in 1806. I believe Mr. Bankes, Sir W. Chatterton, Mr. Leslie, Sheikh Ibrahim, and Mr. Buckingham, are the only Europeans who have seen them. The Arabs were now told that Mr. Bankes would give up the researches he had intended to make on the banks of the Zerka, and go to Djerash instead. We accordingly set out in that direction with three of the Arabs, the remainder proceeding with our baggage from the Salhaan camp to Katty. In our way we as
on the summit of a hill, S. S. E. of Djerash; the village is at present deserted; we found a Greek inscription March 18.-This morning we again on an altar in the court-yard of one of went to Djerash, and measured the the houses. We were about to prowalls of the town, and the principal ceed to Djerash, when one of our three temple. Some of the Salhaan Arabs Arabs who had advanced a little in appearing in the distance, our Bene- front, returned to inform us that six suckher friends galloped off to parley Salhaans were waiting near Djerash to with them, and, as usual, we were intercept us. We accordingly returned again teazed about the dytchmaan. We to join some more of the Benesuckher went this night, by the desire of our party, after having first reconnoitred conductors, to a small camp of the for ourselves. We soon met the reSalhaans, although they had been con-mainder of our escort on their way to tinually calling them their enemies; it Katty, and therefore proceeded with lay one hour and a half to the S. E. of them all, and had a parley with the six Djerash. On the way they tried to Salhaans, who, after some conversapersuade Mr. Bankes to give a horse tion, in which they said that "they to the Salhaans; this request was wanted heads, not money," told the made in a valley about half an hour Benesuckhers that we had their perdistant from the camp, and was pro- mission to remain at Djerash till the pounded in a very mysterious manner; afternoon of this day. Their being able on his refusing they at first stopped, to bring only six armed men to interand said they would not go on, but cept us, was no great proof of their finally conducted us to the camp, say-force; and our Benesuckher friends
exhibited strong proofs of fear, both in words and actions; on our way to Djerash he told us frequently that the Arabs would strip us of everything, and while Mr. Bankes was taking a copy of an inscription near the north gate of the city, the soldier very slowly, without making any further observations, walked off, and was never seen by us again. On the preceding evening he said he had received information of some Damascus troops having ar rived at a town a few hours' distant, and asked permission to depart in the night to procure their protection for us; however, he did not then go, as the villagers persuaded him to the contrary; we, of course, imagined that this was his object in setting off, and, that finding the report false, he had return
now joined us in laughing at them. We endeavoured to finish our task at Djerash this day, but though we were at work till dark (Irby and myself measuring, and Mr. Bankes drawing, copying inscriptions, &c.), we could not complete our work. In the course of the day Mr. Bankes was robbed of his cap by an armed Arab, who, having concealed himself amongst the ruins of the great theatre, stole on him unperceived, while he was drawing. We passed the night at Katty; just as we arrived a grand quarrel arose between the Benesuckhers and the villagers; the scene of action was on the house tops. It is a custom of the country, that for one night travellers are provided with provisions gratis; and there is in every Turkish village a room to lodge them in. Europeans on departed to Damascus. Two spy-glasses were ing generally make a present to the servants, at least equivalent to what has been consumed. I mentioned before, that we had given the Arabs thirty piastres a day for their food; these cunning fellows, however, wanted to force the villagers to feed them, although they had been there before on the night of the 17th, and as the poor people had to feed the horses gratis, as well as the men, it came very hard on them. We paid for everything we got; and we assured the villagers that the Benesuckhers were provided with money to pay for all they had. This was the subject-matter of the quarrel,-battle there was none; for although there was much appearance of anger and rage, and the greatest noise and confusion imaginable, men, women, and children, being all mixed together pell-mell, nevertheless, every one was cautious to avoid coming to blows, and the affray ended to the advantage of the poor natives, the Benesuckhers retreating from the village.
March 20.-We went in the morning to Djerash to finish our operations; a very singular circumstance here took place. Mr. Bankes' soldier from Damascus, whom he had always found very useful and attached, had within the last two or three days very much altered his manner and conduct, and
found missing, which Mr. Bankes had brought with him, for presents; we did not, however, suspect the soldier of any roguery in this respect, although he certainly took the interpreter's gun, leaving his own, which was worse. The theft, however, we afterwards heard was proved against him; the Arabs denied having taken the telescopes. It was two o'clock in the afternoon before we had completed our operations at Djerash. It has been a splendid city, built on two sides of a valley, with a fine stream running through it; the situation is beautiful. The town was principally composed of two main streets, crossing each other in the centre at right angles, as at Antinoe. The streets were lined with a double row of columns, some of which are Ionic and some Corinthian. The pavement is exceedingly good, and there is an elevated space on each side for foot passengers; the marks of the chariot wheels are visible in many parts of the streets. Djerash, supposed to be either Pella or Gerasa, but in some respects answering to neither, can boast of more public edifices than any other city we have seen. There are two theatres, two grand temples,one, as appears by a Greek inscription, dedicated to the sun, like that at Palmyra, and not unlike that edifice, being constructed in the centre of an
March 21.-This morning we proceeded, but coming to a cross-road, the Benesuckhers said they could not reach Szalt that day, but would conduct us to a camp of their own; although we knew that Szalt could be only a few hours distant. We positively insisted upon their escorting us to Szalt, which, after much altercation, they said they would do, if we would give two hundred piastres to each of the sheikhs of Szalt, Heshbon, and Kerek, and also to themselves five days' advance of the thirty piastres a day. All this we positively refused, excepting the thirty for to-day; and, after further discussion, the Benesuckhers endeavouring by their threats to frighten us into a compliance with their demands, the dispute ended by our going to Szalt, accompanied by the prime minister (as we termed him) of the young prince, the chief of the party. The minister is a very great rogue; he is not an Arab born: we thought he had much the appearance of a Levantine, of European extraction.
immense double peristyle court. The columns of the temple are five feet in diameter, and of a proportionate height; the capitals are Corinthian, and wel! executed. One singularity in this edifice is a chamber under ground, below the principal hall of the temple, with a bath in the centre. Five or six smaller temples are scattered about the town; and a magnificent Ionic oval space, of 309 feet long, adds greatly to the beauty of the ruins. The scene of the larger theatre is singularly perfect; there are two grand baths, and two bridges crossing the valley and river. The temples, and both the theatres, are built of marble, but not of a very fine sort. Three hundred yards from the south-west gate is the circus, or stadium, and near it the triumphal arch. The cemetery surrounds the city, but the sarcophagi are not very highly finished; upwards of two hundred and thirty columns are now standing in the city. To the northeast, about 200 yards from the walls, are a very large reservoir for water, and a picturesque tomb fronted by four Corinthian columns; near which is an aqueduct. There are numerous inscriptions in all directions, chiefly of the time of Antoninus Pius; most of them are much mutilated. The Greek inscription, before alluded to, was on the propyleum of the Temple of the Sun, which must have been a grand piece of architecture. The city has three entrances, with richly ornamented gateways; and the remains of the wall, with its occasional towers, are in wonderful preservation. On the whole, we considered Djerash to be a much finer mass of ruins than Palmyra. At two o'clock in the afternoon, having completed our operations, we set out in a south-west direction for Szalt. In an hour and twenty minutes we crossed the Zerka, a small stream winding prettily in a narrow valley; there are the ruins of a small building on the front of the hills near the ford. Ascending from the rivulet, we passed the sites of some small towns, possessing nothing of interest; and at five ined on the left some vineyards, inclosed the evening we arrived at a camp of with stone walls; whence turning to the the Salhaans, where we passed the night. | right, we had the first view of Szalt, not
It was he who put every bad idea into the minds of the prince, and the rest of the Arabs, who were mostly very young men, and not so well versed as himself in the art of cheating. We did not succeed in getting to Szalt, until the interpreter, and the Arab Seys who took care of our horses, frightened by the threats and gesticulations of our escort, had given the Arabs sixty piastres, of which we told them they must themselves be the losers. The prince and his party now quitted us for their own camp, as they said they could not enter Szalt, being at war with the inhabitants. crossed over some small hills into a spacious valley called Bayga, in which are the ruins of a large square cyclopean building, perhaps a fortress; on quitting which, we ascended to the westward over some rugged rocks, and thence descended into some picturesque valleys most beautifully wooded. From these valleys we traversed some more barren soil, and again descending, pass