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when we set out and proceeded as far as the nahr El-Bered, or Cold River; where we passed the night in a khan, a place appropriated to the use of travellers, which Maundrell very well describes in the first and second pages of his book. The map places a village here named Orthosa, the site of the ancient Orthosia; but there is nothing except the khan now to be seen. There is a difficulty, in some instances, in distinguishing Roman buildings from these khans, as both the Romans and the Turks alike employed the arch,
The next day we went as far as Tortosa, nearly opposite the island of Ruad, where stood the famous city of Aradus. There are Roman remains at each of these places. The walls of Tortosa are constructed on the ancient foundation cut in the rock; and the remains of the castle within the gates are ancient. There are some old sepulchral caves by the road side. They serve to show that the Romans, as well as the Egyptians, had burialplaces of this description. But the climate, so different here from what it is in Egypt, has destroyed all remains of stucco or painting, if ever they were thus decorated, which we have reason to believe they were, as Mr. Bankes told us he saw a Roman cave with fresco painting in it near Saida. The island of Ruad, according to Maundrell, is the Arvad, Arpad, or Arphad of scripture. Arvad was one of the places which supplied the fleets of Tyre with seamen.*
November 11.-To-day we went as far as the nahr El-Mulk, which we crossed by a bridge, and stopped for the night at a village about half an hour's distance from the river, the huts of which appeared to be temporary habitations, being constructed of reeds and straw. There are Roman ruins at the mouth of the nahr ElMulk. We had hitherto been in the habit of sleeping in the open air, when we arrived at an Arab village; but now, the month of November being far advanced, we disliked the idea of
* Ezekiel, xxvii. v. 8.
doing so, and accordingly asked for shelter, which was refused, unless each of us, we were four in number, would consent to sleep in a separate habitation. This we knew was the place where Monsr. Boutin, the French traveller, was killed; and not being pleased with the proposition, we bivouacked in the open air as usual, the weather being fine and clear. In the night a man came to endeavour to persuade us not to lie where we were, saying that the wolves would destroy us. We, however, had more apprehension of the two-legged wolves stealing some of our things, and told our informer we had our fire-arms ready, and should keep a good look-out for those or any other mischievous ani mals. In the morning our bread and part of a ham which Padre Hermenigildo had given us were missing; but we suspected that, as far as related to the latter article, the dogs, with which all Arab villages abound, were the thieves, for pork is an abomination to the Turks.
November 12.-Just as we were starting, we found out that a hut close to which we had slept was empty and uninhabited. It appeared to have done duty as a barn; and the people, if they had had any civility, might have offered it to us. In the afternoon we reached Latachia. Two hours from where we slept is Jebilee, the ancient Gabala, where are Roman ruins, the principal of which is the remains of a fine theatre at the north side of the town. The whole journey from Tripoli, with one exception in the neighbourhood of Markab, a village inclosed in ancient fortifications, and seated on the top of a square mountain, near which the coast is rocky, is along a vast rich plain at the foot of the Ansanar mountains. These hills are of no considerable height, and are said to be inhabited by Pagan tribes. The plain is watered by many rivers, and there are also several channels of torrents now dry. Most of the rivers are pretty, their banks being covered with myrtle, oleander, wild vine, fig, &c. Though the soil is rich, it is very partially cultivated and thinly peopled.
The principal produce near Jebilee is cotton, which the natives were gathering in as we passed. The city of Latachia was founded by Seleucus Nicator, under the name of Laodicea, in honour of his mother. He also built three other cities in this neighbourhood, viz. Seleucia, now Suadeah; Antioch; and Apameia, now Famiah. Latachia is seated on the N.W. side of Cape Ziaret, an elevated projection of the coast. In the neighbourhood are gardens planted with olives, figs, &c. in the manner of all the towns of Syria. The port, which is half an hour's distance from the town, is very small, but better sheltered than any we have seen on this coast. There is a fine old castle at the point of a bed of rocks projecting into the sea. The Marina is built upon foundations of ancient columns. There are, in the town of Latachia, an old gate-way and other antiquities. There are also sepulchral caves in the neighbourhood, but as they have no paintings, we did not think it worth while to visit them. Mount Lebanon was in sight the whole way from Tripoli, and was the only mountain on which we could see snow. Mount Cassius was before us. The Christian natives of Latachia and of all the pashalic of Aleppo to the north of Latachia are mostly of the Greek church; they speak the Arabic language. We lodged at the house of the English agent, Signor Moses Elias, a very excellent man. We were detained here till the 15th, by the intrigues of the Arab conductor, who affected to be unwell, and who had previously at Acre, Bayruth, and other places, tried all in his power to oblige us to send him and the horses back to Jaffa. This occasioned us a good deal of trouble and inconvenience.
cate roads, amongst which we lost our way several times. The night had set in, without our finding the village of Lourdee, whither we were bound; and we were on the point of giving up the search, and bivouacking in the wood, when luckily the barking of some dogs indicated to us the vicinity of the place, which is in an elevated situation and immediately by the side of the highest pinnacle of Mount Cassius.
November 18. We descended the north side of these mountains, the scenery still continuing wild and woody. This day, also, we lost our way several times. In the afternoon we reached the banks of the Orontes, at the place where the picturesque part of the river commences, and immediately below the spot which is marked upon the chart as the site of the "city and groves of Daphne.” Mr. Barker has visited the spot; and from him we learn that there are still to be seen the grand sources of water which composed the celebrated fountain. He states that, in some instances, the water boils up in a column as thick as a man's body; and jets-d'eau of that thickness, and upwards of 50 feet high, might be formed here. We now followed the banks of the river, and were astonished at the beauty of the scenery, far surpassing anything we had expected to see in Syria, and, indeed, anything we had witnessed even in Switzerland. The river, from the time we began to trace its banks, ran between two high hills, winding and turning incessantly; at times the road led along precipices, looking down perpendicularly on the river. The luxuriant variety of foliage was prodigious; and the rich green myrtle, which was very plentiful, COLtrasted with the dark-red gravel of the November 16.-The road was along road, made us imagine we were riding a fine plain, until we came near the through pleasure-grounds. The laurel, village of Candele; when crossing laurustinus, bay-tree, fig-tree, wild vine, some hills we descended into the val- plane-tree, English sycamore, arbutus, ley of that name. The village is seated both common and andrachne, dwarf amongst the sand hills to the west of oak, &c., were scattered in all directhe vale, and we had some difficulty in tions. At times the road was overfinding it. The next day we were con-hung with rocks covered with ivy; the tinually passing over hills richly mouths of several caverns gave a wildwooded, with numerous narrow intri- ness to the scene; and the perpen
dicular cliffs, upwards of 300 feet high, jutted into the river, forming points round which the waters ran in a most romantic manner. On one occasion the road wound round a deep bay, so that, on perceiving ourselves immediately opposite the spot we had so recently passed, it appeared as if we had crossed the river. We descended at times into plains cultivated with mulberry plantations and vines, and prettily studded with picturesque cottages. The occasional shallows of the river, roaring over its rocky bed, completed the beauty of this delightful scene, which continued for several miles. In the plain of Suadeah the river becomes of a greater breadth, and runs in as straight a line as a canal. By the time we entered the plain, night had closed in, and we had difficulty in finding Suadeah. There is no bridge; but a peasant at last showed us a place where the river was just fordable. Suadeah is a straggling village, consisting of unconnected cottages, and situated in a plain chiefly inclosed with mulberry and lemon plantations. We put up at a house appropriated for the use of travellers, and found it the best halting-place we had yet met with. The soubash of the village, a sort of petty governor, was in the house, and treated us with much civility, ordering us a good supper, feeding our horses, and refusing to let us pay a single para. All he asked for was a little gunpowder. Unfortunately we had given nearly our whole stock to young Mazolière at Tripoli, but we gave him all that we could spare. Whatever may be the generally received character of the Turks, it is certain that we have always met with the greatest civility and attention from them.
November 19.-In the morning, being pressed for time, and understanding that the ruins of the ancient Seleucia, which are near the sea, and half an hour's distance from Suadeah, possess no particular interest, we pursued our journey towards Antioch. It rained heavily; and after we had been on the road about three hours, being still two hours' distance from
Antioch, we perceived some cottages; and, being thoroughly wet through, we requested shelter. In the two first cottages we found only women; and, as their husbands were absent, they did not dare to receive us. At the third, the men were willing to admit us, but the women would not hear of it, and expressed their refusal in a violent and ill-natured manner. During the time we were thus soliciting shelter, even that of a cow-house, the rain was pouring in torrents, and we made a pitiable appearance, being perfectly soaked through. Seeing that no entreaty availed, we gave them the katack-harack, the Arab expression of thanks, and tried another cottage, where we were admitted without the least hesitation. These cottages consist of a single long room; the cattle occupy one end, and the family the other. The inhabitants have extensive plantations of young mulberries for the silk-worms, and looms for manufac turing their produce. The occupants of the hut, who consisted of the proprietor, his mother, wife, brother, and children, were of that tribe of Mahommedans which Volney designates as Turkomans: they were extremely kind, placing us near a large fire, giving us good beds and coverlids, and making us share with them their humble supper of doura and wheat boiled. It rained during the whole night; and we were detained till noon on the following day, when we proceeded to Antioch, after giving our host eleven piastres, and his wife a double gold Napoleon, as an ornament, besides paying for the horses, corn, &c. The women in this country ornament themselves with pieces of money, varying in value, according to their circumstances; the poorer class with paras, and the higher orders with sequins and gold roubees. We gave the gold coin, not merely to reward our host and his wife for their kindness, but to vex the fair ladies in the other cottage, and make them ashamed of themselves. We also thought that a few extra piastres thus laid out might benefit other travellers.
Antioch is beautifully situated on
the left bank of the Orontes, at the encouragement of agriculture, the arts, foot of a hill. There is a handsome &c.! The eastern part, however, of bridge over the river, and some of the the plain of Alaks, which is nearest heights are picturesque. The present Aleppo, has a few villages, the inhatown is a miserable one, and does not bitants of which we saw in considerable Occupy more than one-eighth of the numbers, engaged in collecting their space inclosed within the old walls, cotton. We stopped at Tourneen, the which have a fine, venerable appear- easternmost of these villages. ance, having square towers every hundred yards, with occasional watch turrets these are the works of the Roman and Greek emperors. Antioch is said to have once contained between eight and nine hundred thousand inhabitants. The plain on which it stands is considerably elevated above that of Suadeah. We were annoyed at not having been able to visit the ruins of the city and groves of Daphne, but it was impossible to do so without a guide, and there was no procuring one. The houses of Antioch, Suadeah, Lourdee, and their neighbourhood, unlike those in most of the towns of Syria, are roofed and tiled, and without terraces. In the side of the hill at the back of Antioch, there are many sepulchral caves. This town is celebrated in the Acts of the Apostles.
November 21.-To-day we went as far as Gesir Adid, four hours' distance, near a bridge over the Orontes. Our road was across a barren plain, bounded to the north by mountains, at the foot of which is the lake of Aggi Dengis. Rain prevented our leaving this place till noon of the 22nd, when we reached Bourkee, the site of a Roman town of considerable size, and where the ancient sepulchral caves cut in the side of the mountains, serve the present natives for habitations. We took up our abode in a deserted and ruinous water-mill.
November 23.-We travelled over some rocky hills into the plain of Alaks, supposed to be that in which Aurelian conquered Zenobia. We passed many sites of ancient towns, castles, tanks, temples, &c., all of the lower empire, and very uninteresting. On one occasion we counted the vestiges of eleven towns, in a rich plain, with a fine loamy soil; all of them now desolate and uninhabited. So much for the Turkish government, and its
November 25.-About 3, P. M. we arrived at Aleppo, passing through an open country, with a thin surface of soil, well tilled in most parts, but monotonous and destitute of trees, as, indeed, is the case all the way from Antioch. We had been recommended by our friend and adviser Sheikh Ibrahim to take the route to the northward of Aggi Dengis, as it would conduct us to the mountains and ruins of St. Simon, which latter, however, are of the date of the lower empire, and, as we have since learnt, totally uninteresting. We have reason to rejoice in having taken the route we did, as the Curds who inhabit the mountains were in rebellion against the pasha, who had sent a military force to quell them shortly before our arrival. We have since heard that the chiefs escaped; but an example was made by the death of about twenty of the prisoners. Some of those executed are supposed to have been innocent; and the pasha is said to have been much affected on hearing this, and recalled his troops, saying, that as the chiefs had escaped, and the natives had submitted, he did not wish any further severity to be shown.
On arriving at the house of Mr. Barker, the consul-general, we found Mr. Bankes there. He was on his way to revisit Egypt and Nubia; and intended to penetrate from the second cataract into Abyssinia. We mutually gave each other all the information we possessed; Mr. Bankes on Asia Minor and Greece; and we on Egypt and Nubia.
December 22.-We have been detained at Aleppo nearly a month, waiting for the arrival of the caravan which brings kali from Sukne to this place, a journey of five days. Palmyra is seven days' journey from Aleppo. The kindness we have experienced in Mr. Barker's hospitable mansion
merits our sincere gratitude. I fear we shall be a little spoiled when we turn out for Palmyra; for here, independent of the society of Mr. Barker and his amiable family, we have had every comfort and luxury we could imagine. Our amusements have been most agreeably varied; sometimes we went out shooting in the gardens near Aleppo, which abound in woodcocks, &c. We coursed the gazelle and hare alternately, the greyhounds in this country being very swift and strong. One day we were indulged with a hawking scene. The cheapness and abundance of game are astonishing; woodcocks, partridges, wild-geese, ducks, teal, the bustard, wild turkey, joli notes, &c. We thought the flesh of the gazelle well-flavoured, although Bruce abuses it. The white species is supposed to be the best. We have frequently had the porcupine at table; it forms a delicious dish, somewhat resembling in appearance and taste both the pig and the hare. The porcupines inhabit holes in the rocks, and they are so quick of hearing that it is very difficult to shoot them, as they never quit their holes till dark, and even then with the greatest circumspection. The people wait patiently in the cold for hours, near the holes, till the animal makes its appearance. They commit much mischief in the gardens near the city. We had thought of visiting Bagdad, for the purpose of seeing the ruins of Babylon; but as Mr. Massick, the Dutch consul here, had recently received a letter from a friend, stating that there is nothing whatever to be seen there, we gave up the idea. Mr. Barker has resided nineteen years as consul-general in this place, and we find his advice and assistance of the greatest use. As we came into this country with only one hundred and fifty pounds, which Mr. Salt supplied us on our bills, we had made up our minds to return to Cairo, to replenish our funds for Asia Minor, Greece, &c.; but Mr. Barker, divining that some such motive was the cause of our intended return to Egypt, most kindly anticipated our wishes on this point, and insisted on supplying us
with whatever money or letters of credit we wanted. This will prevent the necessity of our going to Egypt again, and will assist us much. We are anxious to complete our travels in the Mahommedan countries, and again to enjoy the comforts of Switzerland and Italy. There is a great sameness in all Turkish towns; and the absence of inns, theatres, museums, picture-galleries, libraries, promenades, evening parties, and the ever-handy and comfortable café, is a privation which an European must always feel. A firman from the Grand Signior is on its way to us from Constantinople, Mr Barker having written for it on our arrival here. It will be useful in Asia Minor.
December 24.-The caravan from Sukne arrived this day, and we shall soon be off. We are to send the outlines of our tour to Lord Belmore for his guidance; but this we defer till we get to Palmyra. His lordship very kindly offered us a passage in his brig to any parts which might lie in his way, should we be able to embark with him from Syria; but there is no chance of this.
December 29.-We were to have set off this evening for Palmyra, by way of Sukne; when, accidentally meeting a merchant from Bagdad, a friend of Mr. Barker, he strongly dissuaded us from the measure, and urged us to go by the way of Hamah or Homs, as the Annasee Arabs are in the neighbourhood of Palmyra. We had understood that the cold had driven them all to the southward, towards the banks of the Euphrates; but as it appears there yet remain two tribes of them, Homs will be the best place to start from.
We accordingly prepared to depart in two or three days for Hamah, which place, as well as Homs, is distant only four days' journey from Palmyra, which we had sanguine expectations of being able to reach from either one or the other of these towns. However, we had two other strings to our bow; either to push on to Cariateen, which is only one day from Tadmor, and thence to steal to that city before the Arabs were aware of our intention; or to take