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the rock on the side of the road we descended; this was copied by Maundrell, 120 years ago, and appears to record the construction of the road by the Emperor Antoninus. Near the bridge is also another inscription in the Arabic language. We passed the night at the mouth of the river, and at daylight the following morning proceeded along the sea-shore. In an
and terminate in an angle. A little beyond them are two arches in the mountain's side, the ruins either of a bridge or an aqueduct. Shortly afterwards we quitted the sea-coast and passed over the hills which form the promontory of Bayruth; here we had a fine view of the plain, covered with groves of olives, and of several villages on the mountain's side. Descending, we passed through plan-hour's time we ascended a rocky point tations of figs, and of young mulberry trees for the silk-worm, and from thence through gardens neatly inclosed by walls, where we met occasionally with fragments of antiquity. It was dusk before we entered Bayruth, the ancient Berytus. It stands well, and like all the other towns of Syria that we have seen, has pretty environs and rich gardens at the back of it; but these beauties are always confined to particular spots, and an hour's ride usually conducts you again into an uninteresting and rocky country. There is a fine view of the sea from the marina, and the jetty is built on foun-mantically situated on the summit of dations of antique granite columns. There is also an ancient bath within the town. We were at the house of Mr. Laurella, the English agent, a very good fellow.
October 26. At two in the after. noon we left Bayruth, the road being for a short time very pretty, with gardens on each side of us. We soon crossed the nahr El-Sazib below the junction of the nahr El-Leban, or River of Milk, so called from its foaming when overcharged with water. It is a pretty rivulet; the bridge has six arches. From hence the road led along the sea-beach until we came to a rocky promontory, the ascent of which reminded us of the ladder of the Tyrians, though it is neither so high nor so picturesque; on reaching the summit, we saw below us on the other side the nahr El-Kelb, or River of the Dog, running beautifully through a deep chasm in the mountains, and a very good bridge over it, which Maundrell describes as being a bow-shot from the sea. The banks are planted with vines and mulberries. There is a Roman inscription on a tablet carved out of
of a small bay inhabited by fishermen. At the foot of this promontory, close to the sea, are the remains of a chapel cut out of the rock, which we were informed was the sepulchre of St. George. The old fishermen, whose cottage is situated on the promontory above the chapel, were so superstitious as to believe, and endeavoured to persuade us, that the water of the sea near this spot is a cure for all distempers, and that numerous people came hither for the purpose of being healed by it. We had here a good view of the grand convents of Harissa Soummaar, ro
the mountain. The valley at the end of this bay is cultivated and studded with cottages. Proceeding along the sea-beach we passed a Roman arch constructed with large stones over the bed of a torrent; from hence the road led over rugged rocks, till we came to a handsome bridge of a single arch, over the nahr Ibrahim, the ancient Adonis, which, like the nahr El-Kelb, proceeds from a deep chasm between the mountains, but the level land is more extensive than that near nahr El-Kelb. We now proceeded by the sea-coast to Gebail. On our way we crossed over one of those natural bridges, over a torrent now dry. This is one of many places where the water meeting with inclined beds, has undermined the intermediate earth, and formed caverns, or natural arches. We reached Gebail, or Gibyle, at two in the afternoon, and stopped at the convent of Maronites, a poor miserable set of people who make a merit of never eating meat, &c. At Gebail, without the town, there are many Roman ruins, and a bridge with several granite columns; within the town,
the castle and some other modern edifices are constructed upon ancient foundations. The Roman name of Gebail is marked in the map as Byblus, but in Ezekiel, xxvii. 9, it is called Gebal, and is mentioned as furnishing the fleets of Tyre with caulkers.
of the crusades, all the way from the port towards Tripoli. On the second day of our arrival we received a mes sage from the English consul, expressive of his regret that we had not come to his house; we immediately waited on him, and explained the circumstance to his satisfaction. He was a fine old man, nearly eighty years of age, and remembered Bruce, who stayed some days at his house; we were delighted with the affable and sensible conversation of this veteran.
On Thursday, at four in the morning, we left Tripoli, for the purpose of visiting the cedars of Lebanon and Baalbec. Signor Giuseppe Mazolière, the son of a French merchant, accompanied us, at the request of the padre of the convent. The ascent from Tripoli is gradual; the first object of interest is the aqueduct and bridge over the nahr Kavdas, or Abouli river. These structures are overgrown with bushes and weeds, and the river runs picturesquely under them in two chan
October 28. We went from Gebail to Tripoli, which we did not reach till dusk, though we started at daylight. We saw nothing of interest except the remains of a Roman temple, and we passed over a very rugged and bad road until we reached Batroun, the ancient Botrys. Here the road turned to the right through a fine valley between the mountains, in which we noticed an old picturesque castle standing on a high rock; it is called Temseida, and was probably constructed to defend this pass. The hills on the south of the vale are covered with shrubs, and by the roadside are plantations of mulberries, vines, &c. A small river, which we occasionally crossed by bridges, takes its winding | course through the valley. Leaving nels. At first the road is good, and it, we passed to the north over the mountains by rugged paths, bordered by the myrtle and other wild shrubs, until we again came down upon the coast. At sun-set we reached Tripoli, and not being aware that there was an English consul in the town, took up our quarters in the convent with Padra Hermenigildo. This is the best town we have seen in Syria, the houses being all well built of stone, and neatly constructed within. It is seated at the foot of the mountains, at some distance from the sea-shore, and is surrounded by luxuriant gardens, producing innumerable oranges and lemons. The town is commanded by two old castles on the heights, built in the time of the crusades; the port is near an hour's distance, on a low point of the sea-coast, it is but an indifferent one, being an open anchorage, only a little sheltered by the Pigeon Islands. Three cities formerly stood here, one subject to Aradus, a second to Tyre, and the third to Sidon; hence the origin of the name Tripoli. There are square towers, apparently of the time
passes through cultivated plains, groves of olives, and beautiful valleys watered by branches of the river. Afterwards it becomes very rugged, steep, and irregular, and continues so the whole way to the village of Eden, passing between two conspicuous points of the mountain. Eden is delightfully situated by the side of a rich and highly cultivated valley; it contains between four and five hundred families, who, on the approach of winter, descend to another village only an hour's distance from Tripoli; the families were in the act of removing to their winter habitations when arrived; and on our return from Baalbec, all those who had not previously quitted their summer quarters descended with us. They have an Arab catholic bishop, a church, and several priests; there is another Christian village, lower down in the vale. arrived at Eden about two o'clock, which, including stoppages, makes it ten hours from Tripoli. Here Signor Mazolèire's relations received us most hospitably. The wine was delightful;
that of Lebanon has always been esteemed.*
Early on Friday morning, we set out by moonlight for the cedars, and arrived a little after daybreak. The ascent from Eden to the cedars is not considerable, the distance, allowing for the windings of the road, which is very rugged and hilly, may be about five miles. On the right, higher up the mountain, is a larger and deeper vale than that of Eden, with the village of Beshiri in the bottom; this valley is very rich and picturesque. It is surrounded by lofty mountains, and is watered by a winding stream. It reminded us of the vale of the Dive in Savoy, and its "Pont de Chèvres." The famous cedars of Lebanon are situated on a small eminence, in a valley at the foot of the highest part of the mountain. The land on the mountain's side has a sterile aspect, and the trees are the more remarkable as they stand altogether in one clump, and are the only trees to be seen in this part of Lebanon. There may be about fifty of them, but their present appearance ill corresponds with the character given of them in scripture. There was not one of them at all remarkable for its dimensions or beauty; the largest amongst them is formed by the junction of four or five trunks into one tree; according to Maundrell this is 12 yards in girt; but we are much more inclined to agree with Volney than with Maundrell, in the description which they have respectively given of the cedars of Lebanon. Numerous names carved on the trunk of the larger trees, some with dates as far back as 1640, record the visits of individuals to this interesting spot, which is nearly surrounded by the barren chain of Lebanon, in the form of an amphitheatre of about thirty miles circuit, the opening being towards the sea. We thought the toutensemble more resembled the Apennines at the back of Genoa, than any other mountain scenery we had ever
The words, "All the trees of Eden, the choice and best of Lebanon," Ezekiel, xxxi. v. 16, would seem to imply that the boasted cedars were always near the place in which the few remaining ones now are, as they are not more than five miles distant from the modern village of Eden. In the 2nd Chronicles, ii. 8, the words, "Send me also cedar-trees, fir-trees, and algum-trees, out of Lebanon," clearly prove that formerly other kinds of wood grew on this mountain, none of which are now to be found here, unless the walnut tree of the present day, which is in very high perfection at Eden, is the algum-tree of the ancients. By the first book of Kings, chap. vi. and vii., it appears that much cedar was used in the construction of Solomon's temple. With respect to the village of Eden it appears to stand where of old was the garden of God, so called throughout the whole of the xxxi. chap. of Ezekiel, particularly in the 8th and 9th verse; but by reference to Genesis ii. verse_8, the position of the garden of Eden, where Adam and Eve were placed, seems very uncertain, for from the 10th to the 14th verses you observe, " A river went out of Eden to water the garden, and from thence it was parted and became into four heads :" the river of Ethiopia (the Nile) appears to be one of the four, and the Euphrates another. Maundrell gives no extracts from scripture concerning Lebanon; probably because he thought it would be useless, as it is mentioned in so many different places. Volney is also silent on the subject, I mean as far as respects quotations. Eden is called Aden by the natives at this day.
We hired a guide to conduct us across Lebanon into the valley of Bekaa Mathooalis, in which Baalbec is situated. Leaving the cedars about an hour after sun-rise, we ascended to the crest of Lebanon, where we had an extensive view over the hills at its S. E. foot into the valley, with Baalbec in the distance. We beheld also to the westward a considerable extent of sea. Altogether it was a fine view, but scarcely deserving the commendations
which Volney bestows on it. Lebanon, in the Syriac language, signifies white, which this mountain is, both in summer and winter; in the former season, on account of the natural colour of the barren rock, and in the latter by reason of the snow.
The valley of Baalbec, or of the Kasmia, or Bekaa Mathooalis, has an excessively rich soil, but is very little cultivated, and has no trees except in the immediate neighbourhood of Baalbec itself, and those are chiefly the fig and walnut. The valley is bounded on the N. W. side by Lebanon, and on its S. E. by Anti-Lebanon; its breadth may be about ten miles, while its length from N. E. to S. W. extends as far as the eye can reach. The Kasmia has its source to the north of Baalbec, and running through the plain, discharges itself into the sea a little to the north of Tyre. How deplorable that so luxuriant a spot, with so fine a soil, should lay waste and desolate! and what ideas of former wealth and magnificence do the splendid ruins of Baalbec call to the mind. The inhabitants of the mountain are nearly all of the church of Rome; but those of the Bekaa Mathooalis are a particular sect of Mahomedans, differing from the Turks in general; they are more hostile to the Christians than any other of the natives of Syria.
an hour's distance from Baalbec; the horses had been without any food for fifteen hours. We blamed our guide much for this, as we would have brought fodder with us from Aden, had we known how uninhabited the country was through which we had to pass. When we heard of the distance to Baalbec from the cedars, we threatened to return to Tripoli. But the guide, intent only on his own interest, and fearing to lose his money for the trip, declared there were several villages in the way where we could refresh the horses.
Saturday, November 1.-Early this morning we arrived at Baalbec, and employed the whole day in visiting the antiquities. Yesterday had been excessively fine, the sky being perfectly clear; but this evening they collected much on Lebanon and on the tops of the other hills, and the natives announced to us the approach of bad weather. We measured every part of the ruins ; but as Wood and Dawkins, as well as Volney, have given correct descriptions, it would be superfluous for me to enter into minute detail. The imposing grandeur of one part of the building, of which six pillars are standing, particularly struck us. It is the remnant of a colonnade standing. Their beauty and elegance are surprising. Their diameter is 7 ft., and In descending from the summit of we estimated their altitude at between Lebanon the road was excessively 50 and 60 ft., exclusive of the epistylia steep and rugged; we dismounted and which is 20 ft. deep, and composed of walked our horses down it; the sides immense blocks of stone, in two layers of the mountain abound in red-legged of 10 ft. each in depth, the whole of partridges, and other game. At the which is most elaborately ornamented S. E. foot of this part of Lebanon, is with rich carved work in various dethe source of a fine clear rivulet, which vices. We imagine these pillars to finally unites with the Kasmia. From have been the remains of an avenue of hence we proceeded over some rugged twenty columns on each side, forming hills covered with various shrubs; an approach to the temple. The space among which a species of oak, the originally included by them was 104 myrtle, and the almond-tree, were re- paces long, by 58 broad. We were markable. Mr. Mazolière told us they much pleased with the architecture have a tradition that there were for- and sculpture of every part of the ruins, merly gardens here, and the almond although they have been much disand pear-trees seem to confirm it. figured by having been formerly conCrossing these hills, you come, near verted into a fortress. Remarkably the plain, to the first village, after large stones have been used in the conleaving the cedars. Late in the even-struction of the various edifices, and in ing we arrived at Yead, a village about the S.W. part of the elevated walls on
next morning being fine, we began the ascent. The peasants with their cattle were unwilling to make the first trial, as they knew it would be difficult to find the road on account of the depth of snow; and they were aware also that the second party could profit by the mistakes of the first. We therefore led the van and met with no difficulty until we came nearly to the top; when, losing the road, the snow being very deep, and the sides of the mountain steep, our horses all fell with us, and were partly buried under the snow. We were obliged to dismount, and had considerable trouble in reach
which they stand, we measured a single stone of 66 ft. in length, and 12 in breadth and thickness. In the construction of the pyramids and temples in Egypt, we never noticed a single stone of more than 30 ft. in length, and these were most of calcareous or sand stone, excepting some few of granite. The whole of these buildings, together with the walls, are of coarse marble, excessively hard. The inhabitants of Baalbec, although much prejudiced against Christians, treated us civilly, and seemed less curious and inquisitive than the natives living near any of the other objects of interest which we had visited. We left Baalbec on Sundaying the summit. The cold was excesat mid-day, but the afternoon turning out very rainy, we stopped for the night at a small village beyond the opposite side of the plain. We observed that considerable quantities of snow had fallen on the mountains, which may give some idea of the great height of Lebanon; indeed, when we crossed the mountain the preceding Friday, we found several patches of last year's snow, and we were told that it remains in some places, near the summit, throughout the year.
November 3.-Monday, the morning was foggy but calm; and the sun breaking out at times, we hoped the haze would clear away and that we should have fine weather. We accordingly proceeded on our return to Tripoli, but had not gone far when we met some peasants returning to their village, after having made an ineffectual attempt to cross Lebanon, where they said that much snow had fallen. In fact, an exceedingly cold N.E. wind began to blow with violence, accompanied by such heavy showers of sleet, snow, and rain, that we were obliged to take shelter in a cave at the foot of the mountain. We found here many peasants, who had made ineffectual attempts to cross; but as we had a difficulty in getting room for our horses, the cave being small and nearly filled before we arrived, we removed to a larger, though more exposed one, being little more than a cleft of the rock, where we got ourselves and our horses also under a roof, and made a large fire for the night. The
sive; and having on loose linen Turkish breeches, and shoes without any stockings, we felt it the more severely. In descending the opposite side, the snow was also very deep, and we found it advisable to push on lest we should be caught in a fog, which the appearance of the weather seemed to threaten. Shortly after we began to descend, it became thick and hazy, but we reached Eden in safety about two in the afternoon. We were informed at Eden that the bishop had publicly offered up prayers for our safety. We were told that people are prohibited from crossing Lebanon after the first of November; but I much doubt the truth of this. None of us received any injury from the weather, except Mr. Mazolière's servant, whose legs were much chapped and cracked by the cold. The poor fellow had never been among the snow before.
On Wednesday, November 5, the weather was fine, and we returned to Tripoli; the natives of Aden with their wives, children, and baggage, descending at the same time. The first part of the descent was in some places so steep and difficult, that we observed the peasants held on by the tails of their horses to prevent them from falling. On our arrival, we learnt that on the coast they also had experienced very bad weather. Wet weather detained us at Tripoli, where we were treated with the greatest kindness by the Padre Hermenigildo, until the afternoon of the 9th of November,