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on a shoal in the middle of the Nile, June 24.-This morning we were and retired before we got near them: opposite Koroskoff; we purchased a they were the first we had seen since sheep for nine piastres, but were we left Phile; indeed they are never obliged to send the money before they met with near that island. On the would even show the animal; we re19th a foul wind obliged us to stop, monstrated much against this curious when an old man came to beg medi- method of making a bargain, but nocine, thinking we were hackim, or thing would induce them to change physicians, a strange notion which all their plan. We this day saw the calibarbarous nations have respecting bash growing wild on creepers up the Europeans: we gave him some advice, acacia-trees on the river side. Our though we declined any pretensions to crew got three very good ones. The the title he had given us. Bruce, in boys also found a sort of wild currant making himself acquainted with the growing close to the water side; we rudiments of physic, showed how well tasted some, and thought them not he judged of the proper mode of tra- unlike the bleaberry, though not velling in these countries; and his shaped like them, being round; in size narrative proves how much he bene- and colour they are alike. fited by this knowledge. Our denial of all knowledge of physic met with little belief among the natives; and to induce us to give them assistance, they offered us two fowls for any aid we would render to their patients. On the 20th we saw a camel swimming across the river; one man swam before with a halter in his mouth, leading the animal, another followed behind.
June 21.-We this day observed, immediately opposite Duckie, two lads crossing the river which is here tolerably wide, and pushing and towing a laden reed raft.
Our custom was always to bathe morning and evening, frequently oftener. This evening, while at this recreation, Mr. Belzoni was bitten in the foot, which caused him to cry out somewhat loudly for assistance. Next morning he was bitten again, in the same place; this last bite fetched blood, taking a piece out of the toe. Mr. Belzoni plainly felt something twisting round his leg; we all agree in thinking it must have been a water lizard. The other day a man hailed us and asked "if we would buy a spyglass;" he said he was a native of Senaar. We thought it must be the property of some European who had been robbed, and therefore told him we would see it first, upon which he came into the boat, that we might carry him to the village where it was (about four hours' sail above); however, on arriving there he walked off, and we never heard again either of him or his glass-the fact is, he wanted a passage, and we gave him credit for so cunning a method of getting one.
On the twenty-second observed the purple acacia; it bears some resemblance to a shrub, and is evidently a dwarf species of the mimosa; never attaining a height beyond a foot or fifteen inches; excepting in colour, the flower is like the yellow acacia. On the twenty-third our crew killed a snake that was basking on the river side; it was gray, with two black marks below its head. It was curious to see the precautions they used before they would surprise this reptile, which June 25.-We this day arrived near they represented as poisonous, though Koroskoff, at the place where the river I did not believe it was so. We had reaches the southernmost point, before this morning a regular wild-goose the beginning of the second cataract; chase after an old one and four young for the river here turns due north, ones; the crew jumped overboard and and continues in that direction between caught them all, though with some ten and fifteen miles; after which it difficulty. I mention this merely to becomes S. W. and then west to the give some idea how expert these peo-second cataract. The Nile here asple are in the water; they may almost be said to be amphibious.
sumes a picturesque appearance, having several islands and rocks in the
centre of it. In the evening our janis- chasing a statue; but after much sary shot a wild-goose; its plumage prevarication, we could not even get was beautiful, and its taste exceedingly a look at it. The natives of this place good, though we had not the means of are both handsome and well made, a cooking it in a very savoury manner. circumstance very rare in Nubia; June 26.-Observed the Nile to have their complexion, however, was unfallen about 13 foot. It is now twenty- usually dark. In the evening we artwo days since it began to rise. It is rived at Derry, and sent word to already above the cataract of Syene Daoud and Halleel Cashief, the two (Assuan). sons of Hassan, (who, most unfortunately for us, was at Dongola, and by whose absence we lost the friendship and assistance of the only honest man in the country,) that we were going up to open the temple at Abou-Simbel, and would thank them to send orders for us to be permitted to work; adding, at the same time, that we would wait on them and pay our respects on our return. While waiting there we had a specimen of Nubian dancing; about twelve lads assisted; the music consisted only in clapping the hands, in the doing of which they kept very good time. I cannot say much for the elegance or gracefulness of the dance, as it was nothing more than lifting up the right foot and stamping it down again, then rising up on the left foot by the spring of the instep, and afterwards letting the feet rest on the flat sole. This was done for a backsheeish which we gave them. We also gave the reis and crew a backsheeish of ten piastres, but they said it was not enough, so we added another five. At night, when we stopped, the reis came to us to say that we were two parties, and therefore should by rights pay double the money we had agreed to give for the boat. They also complained that we had not given sufficient to the crew to eat; that Jacques (an agent of Mr. Drovetti, a Frenchman living in this country, and who hired the boat not long before us,) always gave them one-third of his coffee, meat, bread, and every think that he had; in short, they imagined that up here we were at their mercy. Now, as we had regularly fed them, and given them coffee without stint every day, we We now observed the water to be thought it time to come to an underexceedingly muddy, and of a reddish standing, and therefore told them that yellow colour. We stopped a short the boat was at our disposal, and that time at Offidena with a view of pur-it was no affair of theirs if we had two
June 27.-We this day saw two crocodiles; our men requested us to fire some muskets to frighten them away, but were not afraid of towing the bark in the water close to the bank where we observed them. I think, from what we have noticed of these animals, that it is very seldom, if ever, they attack people. This morning a man on horseback came down to the river side, and said he was sent by Halleel Cashief with salam alicams (compliments): he, however, seemed chiefly intent upon getting something for himself; and, in a moment, enumerated several articles which he requested us to give him; such as coffee, snuff, gunpowder, salt, &c.; we told him we had none to spare, as we reserve those articles for Hassan Cashief, the chief person in this country, and whose favour it is necessary to gain by presents, in order to get permission to open the temple at AbouSimbel. That chief has pledged his word to Mr. Belzoni, that none but the English should be allowed to work there, on condition that he, Hassan, is to have half the gold that was found in it for these people have no idea that our researches for antiquities in this country have any other object than to get treasure; and they laugh when we tell them we are looking for stone statues, and slabs with inscriptions on them. They cannot conceive what motive can induce us to come such a distance, and expend three or four thousand piastres to clear away an accumulated mass of sand, for no other purpose than to find some granite figures.
however, made a noise to awaken him, when he rushed into the water with his mouth open, looking very savage. He was about fifteen feet long.
or five different parties; and with regard to food, that as they were not contented with what we had given them spontaneously, they should have nothing. We have no doubt but our janissary and the Greek servant put them up to this request, as the soldier took a poor cowardly part, and urged that as we were in a savage country, we had better temporize with them till we were on our return, thus show-second cataract. The banks of the ing of how little use these fellows are to protect travellers.
June 28.-Fassed Ibrim, situated on a rude but picturesque hill of a conical shape, and of barren calcareous stone. There is not now a single inhabitant to be seen, and it presents a sad picture of ruin and desolation. Mr. Legh, in his recent publication, (a few extracts from which we have seen in the Quarterly Review for February last) says "this town was destroyed by the Mamelukes." It was the extent or limit of his voyage in Nubia. He travelled in 1813. Mr. Bankes, it appears, was the first Englishman who ever succeeded in gaining the second cataract: he travelled in 1815. I fancy he took much about the same tour in Syria that we mean to take, though we have not as yet seen his journey traced out. In 1816, Mr. Drovetti, the ci-devant French consul in Egypt, succeeded in reaching the second cataract, together with his two agents, Rifaud and Cailliaud; these travellers, together with Sheikh Ibrahim (a real friend of ours) and Mr. Belzoni, are the only persons that have reached thus far. Mr. Belzoni had his wife with him in man's clothes. Poor Norden, who travelled eighty years ago, could only reach Derry. His Nubian trip is interesting, though not very instructive. Denon went no higher than Phila; and Pocock only reached that isle. On the tops of the hills near Ibrim, we remarked many conical hillocks, as marks to direct the Dongola caravans. This evening we saw a crocodile sleeping on the sand a considerable way up. We were within twenty yards of him, but as none of our muskets were loaded with ball we did not fire; we,
June 29.- We arrived at AbouSimbel, and unfortunately found that Hassan Cashief was absent; we sent again to Derry, to Daoud and Halleel, for leave to begin to open the temple when we returned from the
river between Ibrim and Abou-Simbel are beautifully spread over with the yellow and purple acacia, forming thick hedges, which have a very pleasing effect; a species of the tamarisk is also common here. This is the plant that produces the gum arabic, which is brought in great quantities from the interior of Africa in the vicinity of Darfur. The seeds of the acacia form also a lucrative branch of trade, being sent in the first instance to Cairo, and then shipped for Europe, where they are used for tanning. The water is now become exceedingly thick, it is not, however, unpleasant to the taste.
June 30.-While we were at AbouSimbel, the Dongola caravan passed; it was preceded by about fifty camels, carrying provisions, &c. The conductors were armed with swords, daggers, and spears. They wore sandals to preserve the soles of their feet from the burning sand, which we now feel most sensibly, being obliged to stop every now and then to pour it out of our shoes. These sandals are much like those worn by the ancient Egyptians, and which are often found on the feet of the mummies.
The range of the Mockatem mountains terminate nearly opposite AbouSimbel in a remarkable manner, in a considerable number of pyramidal hills rising up from the sand, and having the appearance of a gigantic camp; some of the hills are oblong, and in the form of marquees: others are so perfectly pyramidal, that it is difficult to divest one's-self of the idea that they are the work of men's hands.
July 1.-Stopped opposite the village of Farras. We here examined the site of a large Nubian city, and amongst the modern stone buildings
of the Arabs found several remnants ceeded in sticking one of their daggers of temples, with hieroglyphics. In one in his head, and by that means hauled was a beautiful cornice and a frieze, it on shore. Our Egyptian crew had with the winged globe highly finished. done the same near Beni Hassan. We The natives showed us some Greek got it on board, and, though nearly and Roman ornaments, such as the dead, it sensibly affected my arm in spread eagle, ornamental cross, &c. laying hold of it. I felt a double shock Near the village are some fragments up the arm near the elbow. It was of a temple, consisting of several about two feet long; had very small broken pieces of red granite pillars, eyes. The belly and top of the back also some small ones of beautiful white white; one dorsal fin, and the sides, marble. From the appearance of these were coloured dark brown with black ruins, the fineness of the situation, and spots; it had no scales. Our sailors the rich plain of cultivated land near in Egypt ate the one they caught, but it, I think this must once have been a the present crew would not touch this, populous and flourishing city, in the even when dead, and consequently time of the Greeks and Romans, as harmless, much less eat it. They all well as the Egyptians. Close to the told us we avoided the shock by utterruins there is a natural rock standing ing a charm, or using some magic by itself, with a doorway leading to a influence. This day one of the boys very small recess or chamber, in which of our crew brought on board a cameare two Egyptian figures, in intaglio, lion. He caught it in an acacia on the wall: one is a man, the other (called in Nubia the soont) tree, which a woman with the lotus flower in her they affect more than the date, or any hand. There is a double row of hiero- other tree in this country. On coming glyphics near the inner figure, and a on board, it hissed and shewed sympniche at the further end of the cham- toms of anger, evincing at the same ber about four feet square. time a great desire to make its escape. It was then of a dirty green colour, with dark spots, and whenever it was approached it turned to a dusky brown, inflating itself at the same time. I conclude that one hue is the effect of fear, and the other of indifference. We had subsequently eight of these animals on board; some of them became so tame, that when the flies annoyed us we had only to take one of the camelions in our hand, and place it near the flies, and it would catch them with its long_tongue in great numbers.
We bathed this morning opposite a village, and on a sand-bank in front of us, at not more than a musket-shot distant, we observed two crocodiles (timsah in Arabic). As soon as we went into the water they both walked into the river, to all appearance from fear, for they are certainly both shy and timid, and, I suspect, will only attack a single person; nor then, unless they can surprise him in the water, and off his guard. We saw no more of these two, but, at noon, we saw another swimming with his nose just out of the water. We also observed a pretty large water-lizard, and a small black water-snake. To-day the sand-hills have assumed a fine green appearance, being covered here and there with tamarisk. This verdure, contrasted with the dark yellow sand, forms a pleasing diversity of colour. In the evening, while towing the boat, our sailors found a torpedo on the very brink of the river, apparently asleep. It was curious to observe their caution and timidity in approaching it; they, however, suc
July 1. In the evening we arrived at Farras, when two natives, with the men servants of Hassan Cashief, came to us, and we made a bargain with them to procure asses and camels to go above the second cataract. One of these remained in the boat, and the other promised to meet us at Elpha on the morrow with the animals. Elpha is opposite the second cataract, and is the last habitable place to which the Nubian boats ascend.
July 2.-Arrived at the second cataract, and perceiving we should have a long distance to walk to the elevated
point from whence the finest view of it is obtained, we requested the reis to take us higher up the river, in order to shorten the walk, but all the boatmen persisted that it was impracticable for the boat to go higher on account of the rocks; they offered, however, to take us if we would first go over to Elpha, on the opposite side of the river, and land all our effects, and then return again. We required the reason of this odd proposition, when they said that they were apprehensive of thieves on that side of the river. We did not however like the scheme, and therefore refused to do so, urging them to advance higher up, as we plainly perceived we might go a good league farther without the least risk, but nothing would induce them to consent. In the mean time another boat arrived, and we perceived that our reis and his sailors were in league with the men of the other boat, to force us to take their bark; but we determined to walk rather than submit to this imposition, as the new comers wanted a high price, and accordingly we set out. The sand was deep and the sun very hot, so that we soon found that walking in the desert is no joke: our trip occupied us about two hours, from one o'clock to three, the hottest part of the day. On the road we found innumerable tracts of the gazelle and other animals; we saw seven of the former in one group, and three in another. They were not so timid as we expected, and stopped to gaze on us with their ears cocked up like deer in a park their colour is brown, not much unlike the sand, and when they are in a valley it is difficult to perceive them. We were not more than two musket-shots distant from the three we first saw. When running, they are wonderfully light and nimble, and while on the rocky parts bounded with great agility. The spot from whence we surveyed the cataract was a projecting cliff, about 200 feet high, with a perpendicular precipice down to the river side; from this place, which is on the western bank, you look down on the cataract to great advantage; it presents a fine coup d'œil: the river here runs E. N. E. and W. S. V. In Ame
rica this would be called "a rapid," there being no direct fall, only an immense cluster of innumerable black rocks, with the Nile running in all directions with great rapidity, and much noise between them; they fill up the whole breadth of the river, which may be about two miles wide, and they extend as far as the eye can reach, altogether making a space of about ten miles of rapids: three below the rock on which we stood, and seven above. The scenery here is remarkably wild, there being no human habitation visible, excepting a fisherman's hut on one of the islands, and the village of Elpha on the opposite side of the river, in the distance; some of the rocks have beds of yellow sand on them, and most of the islands have small trees and shrubs growing in the crevices: the verdure of these, contrasted with the sand and black rocks, produces a fine effect. In front, and on both sides, the view is bounded by the desert; to the southward are the tops of two high mountains rearing their heads above the hills, and apparently seventy or eighty miles distant. The western bank of the river is richly covered with trees and shrubs, and it is curious to observe, immediately beyond this green margin, the barren desert, without the least vestige of verdure. Having bathed and dined on bread and cheese, we set out on our return to the bark, our guides urging us to be quick, lest we should be benighted; they said the serpents and other venemous reptiles always came down by night to drink, and they were apprehensive that we should tread on them; they also said we should meet robbers at night: these people have a remarkable aversion to being in the dark. I remember, when at Dendera, our servant, an Arab, hurried off and left us behind, when he thought we should be late in returning to our boat; and whenever our lights have gone out in a tomb or temple, the Arabs have always clapped their hands, and made a noise to keep their spirits up till the light returned. In the evening, after dark, we reached the boat.
July 3.-In the morning at daylight