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ancient Latopolis. In the centre of the town, near the market-place, is an Egyptian temple, which must have been magnificent, but the whole of it is now completely buried, and built over with modern houses, except the portico or ante-chamber. This is supported by twenty-four columns, in four rows of six each; the outer row in front having a semi-wall of intercolumniation like that at Tentyra. The sculpture, in bassó-relievo, is executed in an indifferent style: the signs of the zodiac are represented on both ends of the ceiling, but they are much inferior to those of Tentyra. The chief beauty of this portico consists in the elegant proportions of the shafts of the columns. The capitals, all of which are different, are well executed, representing the fruit and leaves of the date, vine, lotus, &c. &c. Three miles north of Esneh there is a small temple in ruins, supposed to be situated on the site of the ancient Aphroditopolis, and on the opposite side of the river there is another on the site of Contra Latopolis. We visited neither of them, as they were reported unworthy the trouble, and time was growing precious. As we had inspected the ruins at Erment, the ancient Hermontis, on our passage up the Nile in May, we did not again visit them. The city appears to have been extensive and compact. There are the remains of four temples, but only one at present is in such a state as to indicate what they once were. This temple has but seven columns standing, each of which has a capital of a different pattern from the others, the whole being composed of representations of the palm leaf in various forms. There are two sanctuaries in the temple, both ornamented with various symbolic representations, in basso-relievo, stuccoed and painted. Some of the groups are peculiar. In the larger sanctuary are sixteen hippopotami, in two processions, walking upright; also a hippopotamus presenting an offering to Horus, who is sitting on the lotus flower; several crocodiles, with hawks' heads, on square cases, either altars or sarcophagi; two rows of three monkeys,
and two of four cats; a human figure, with the Ibis's head, presenting offerings to a cat; a man bearing a globe on his shoulders; an oblong-square case ornamented all over with flowers; above it appear twelve human heads, in four groups of three each, and below are their feet with sandals; (these last are probably men carrying a sarcophagus ;) a small human figure (Horus), with a hawk's head, riding between the horns of a cow (Isis). In the inner sanctuary are two cows, with a child sucking each, the animals with their heads turned round and looking at the infants-probably Isis and her son Horus. On the ceiling are two rams with wings-a taurus and a scorpio; twelve figures in three rows of four each, with a circular head ornament, and a star in the centre, pro- bably have some allusion to the signs of the zodiac. All the ornaments of these two sanctuaries are highly finished. Near the temple, on the east side, are the ruins of an ancient basin, in the centre of which Denon mentions, on the authority of Aristides, there was a Nilometer, but the column on which it was graduated no longer exists; the remains of a flight of steps, from the basin up to the temple, are still to be seen.
Sunday, August 17.- Early this morning we arrived at Luxor, part of the ancient Thebes, and took up our quarters in one of the temples. Having established our household, we devoted the day to a careful re-examination of both Luxor and Carnack. At the former place we carefully inspected the sculpture on the exterior of the great pylon. We also clearly made out that, with the exception of being written vertically instead of horizontally, eight or ten of the upper hieroglyphics on the magnificent obelisks are the same as the first characters of the frieze at Abou-Simbel, and the same also as the upper hieroglyphics in what are termed Cleopatra's Needles at Alexandria.
Monday, August 18.-We devoted this day to visiting the tombs of Gourna; and Messrs. Beechey and Belzoni having been employed for months, by Mr.
he offered his museum to Mr. Salt, on his arrival, for seven thousand pounds, but most persons seem to think he will never get this price. He is now gone into Upper Egypt in search of a temple and Egyptian road, which are said to have been seen by the jelabs, at one day's journey, in the desert, from Madfuni, the ancient Abydus.
Salt, in digging and making excavations in various directions among the rubbish of ancient Thebes, and particularly at Gourna, were the best guides we could possibly have. It is customary with the natives to deceive travellers, and tell them that they have seen all, before they have inspected half; and it was precisely this trick they played on Mr. Irby and myself on The tombs of Gourna are situated our former visit. They have not been in a valley to the S. W. of the Memunmindful of the eagerness with which nonium. Those which we first intravellers inquire after objects of anti- spected are considered the best, and quity; especially the papyri, which are consist of two square courts cut in a generally found under the arms or be- bed of calcareous stone. There are tween the legs of the mummies, and excavations on three sides of the the demand for which has been so square, and the fourth, or south side, great of late, in consequence of an is that by which they are entered. opposition between the French party, The principal excavations are on the employed by Mr. Drovetti, and the north side; these are very extensive, English, employed by Mr. Salt, that and we were at a loss which most to they now sell for thirty, forty, and admire, the beauty of the sculpture on fifty piastres each, whereas, formerly, the walls, or the grandeur and extent you could get them for eight or ten. of the excavations. The figures are About a dozen of the leading charac- cut on the smooth stone, which is very ters of Gourna, that is, the greatest close-grained, resembling the finest rogues in the place, have headed their chalk, but without cracks or flaws, and comrades, and formed them into two rather harder; the colour is of so pure distinct digging parties, or resurrec- a white, and admits of so fine a polish, tion men, designating them the French that stucco has been quite unnecessary. and the English party; these are con. There is a harmony throughout the stantly occupied in searching for new decorations of these tombs that we have tombs, stripping the mummies, and no where else noticed; the sculpture, collecting antiquities. The directors which is in intaglio, will bear the mihave about three-fourths of the money, nutest inspection. The plan of the and the rest is given to the inferior excavation is extremely singular, somelabourers. They dread lest strangers times abruptly turning either to the should see these tombs, which to them right or left, without any apparent are so many mines of wealth, and cause. At the further end there is a should commence digging speculations fine quadrangular court, having the of their own-hence the care of the solid rock in the centre. You here Gourna people in concealing them. It meet with some very rich groups; and would be endless to describe all the there are innumerable remains of fine intrigues which are carried on; or statues, in alto-relievo, leaning against the presents given to the Defterdar Bey, the wall in all directions; we could the Agas, and the Cashiefs, to attach not, however, distinguish one that was them to the one or the other party. perfect. The art and precision with Lately, Mr. Drovetti obtained an order which the decorations of these sepulfrom the Defterdar Bey, that the na-chres are finished, exhibiting an endtives should neither sell nor work for the English party, and a cashief was most severely bastinadoed by the bey's orders, and in his presence at Gourna, for having done so. At present, things are on a better footing. Mr. Drovetti is not an amateur, but collects to sell;
less variety of symbolic representations, in the most elaborate and highly finished style, are truly astonishing. In some places the roofs are arched, in others they are flat; here you meet with a deep well in a corner; shortly afterwards you descend a flight of
steps. Some of the hieroglyphics are painted blue on a pale red ground; blue is much used, the colour of the stone itself serving occasionally for a fine white field. Amongst the figures, in basso-relievo, there were many quite perfect, and so minutely cut, that the eye-brows and ears, the hair, nose, lips, and the hands and nails, would bear the closest inspection; in short, throughout the whole of this mausoleum, the work of most skilful artists is observable. The examination of the principal tomb occupied us two hours.
in a tomb of this description that some of the diggers found a beautiful network, composed of long blue hollow beads, with threads passed through them; the parts of the net hanging down over the shoulders, and all emanating from a scarabus Thebaicus, which was on the crown of the head. It was found on the head of a female mummy.
At the commencement of this year the diggers also found two remarkably fine Egyptian vases of brass, covered with hieroglyphics; they are nearly two feet high, and are the most valuable remains of antiquity which have been discovered for some years, being quite perfect. Mr. Belzoni was fortunate enough to get them for Mr. Salt, for one hundred and seventy piastres-41. 5s.
in by a small hole barely sufficient for the body to be squeezed through, we entered a small sepulchral antechamber adjoining to a tomb filled with mummies. From the finished style of the decorations of this chamber, we concluded that it must have been the tomb of some noble family; the paintings are all in fresco, and so wonderfully well preserved, that not the least scratch or stain is visible; the pure white ground of the wall not being even tinged with yellow. Amongst the groups we noticed an interesting troop of six female musicians, dressed in white robes reaching down to their ankles; over this they have a sort of black, loose woollen net hanging over the shoulders, and reaching down to the waist, Their hair is jet black, plaitted in ringlets, reaching
We afterwards went to see the mummy pits. It is impossible to conceive a more singular and astonishing sight than this. Imagine a cave of considerable magnitude filled up with heaps of dead bodies in all directions, and in the most whimsical attitudes; We now went to inspect a newly dissome with extended arms, others hold-covered tomb, that well recompensed ing out a right hand, and apparently us for the trouble. Having crawled in the attitude of addressing you; some prostrate, others with their heels sticking up in the air; at every step you thrust your foot through a body or crush a head. Most of the mummies are enveloped with linen, coated with gum, &c., for their better preservation. Some of the linen is of a texture remarkably fine, far surpassing what is made in Egypt at the present day, and proving that their manufactures must have arrived at a great degree of excellence. Many of the bodies, probably those of the lower orders, are simply dried, without any envelopment. Innumerable fragments of small idols are scattered about; they are mostly human figures of Osiris, about two inches long, with the hook and scourge in either hand; some are of stone, some of baked earthenware, and others of blue pot-down from the outer part of the eyetery. Except as being so odd and extraordinary an exhibition, few of the common tombs, which were most likely for the poorer class of natives, are worth seeing, as none of them are ornamented in any way whatever; the bodies are stowed away in compact masses, tier on tier, always crossing each other. In some instances we found the hair quite perfect. It was
lids all round the head, and has, at first sight, the appearance of a veil. They are walking in procession and playing at the same time: the leader has a harp with fourteen strings; then comes a girl with a guitar, which is not unlike that now in use; then one with a lute, handsomely shaped; after which comes another girl clapping her hands, apparently keeping time; then
which enables us frequently, in this
another with a sort of double pipe: this instrument is played on like a clarionet, and is long and slender; both the tubes are of equal length. The procession closes with a female beating on a tambourine, which is in this shape The gestures of these musicians, with their uplifted eyes, would lead one to suppose they were playing some impassioned air. The preservation of this painting is astonishing, the colours being perfectly fresh, and no part whatever in the least defaced. What would not the French have given for such a specimen to put in their splendid work? There is nothing throughout Egypt to be compared to it. In this apartment there are figures of two male harpers; both are squatted down, and playing on smaller instruments than that just described, having only nine strings each one is playing alone, the other is accompanied by a man playing on a guitar. These last-mentioned musicians are bare-headed, and have bare feet; they are apparently elderly men. There are many other groups. The sacred Bull (Apis) is here most magnificently ornamented, and is a handsomer animal than it generally is. The ceiling of the apartment is divided into four compartments, each of which is painted with a different device. Adjoining the chamber, and connected by means of a small well, is a tomb filled with mummies, amongst which are the fragments of a mummy-case, richly painted and glazed. Some of the bodies are covered with canvas, over which is a coat of plaster painted. We found concealed in the envelope of the corpses, some of the small ornaments of earthenware, called Nilome-ing the statues and temple at Memnoters.
The valley of Gourna ends at the foot of the Lybian mountains, where their sides present a perpendicular precipice. Here are some interesting antiquities-a granite portal, discovered this year by digging; an arch, the only one of Egyptian masonry to be seen in the country. It is well known that the Egyptians were ignorant of the scientific mode of building an arch; and it is this circumstance
We next proceeded to visit a small temple dedicated to Isis, which is situated to the N. W. of Medinet Aboo. Its position is seen from Memnonium, but being surrounded by a Saracenic wall of sun-burnt brick, nothing but one portal is visible. This constitutes the approach to the edifice, and through it you arrive at a small portico, the pillars having capitals of the head of Isis. There is, besides the portico, a cross ante-chamber, a sanctuary, and two wings: it is altogether a neat little temple. In the evening, after examin
nium, we returned to Luxor.
Tuesday, August 19.-Early this morning we crossed the water with our janissary to pay a farewell visit to the Tombs of the Kings. One of the chief diggers accompanied us to show us two new tombs discovered by Mr. Belzoni this year. We found them quite unworthy of notice. They are situated in a small valley adjoining the great one. We afterwards again explored the other tombs. In the small
chamber where Bruce made the drawing of the harp which he gave to Mr. Burney (for his History of Music), we saw that traveller's name scratched over the very harp. This is, we think, strong presumptive evidence that he made the sketch upon the spot, though he has been accused of drawing it afterwards from memory: he is, however, in error as to the number of strings. In other respects, he has given the form of the instrument correctly, but the musician is very indifferently copied. This evening, we found some scorpions, which our guide took up in his hand with great indifference we remarked, however, that he took good care always to seize the reptiles by the tail.
We returned on foot, by the way of Memnonium, ascending to the top of the Lybian chain, which on one side gave us a fine view of the valley and Tombs of the Kings, while on the other side we looked down on the plain, which contains the whole of the ancient Thebes, together with the Nile, both seen to great advantage, and forming a splendid specimen of Egyptian scenery. As we descended, we counted on one spot upwards of fifty mummypits, discernible by their open mouths or entrances, on the sides of the hills, exclusive of an innumerable quantity of doors of grottoes, sepulchral chambers, &c., &c., cut out of the sides of the mountains. We now returned to Luxor, and having seen everything, began to think of returning. I cannot, however, quit Thebes without adverting to Homer's description of it. He says
or gates, unless the term is applied to the pylons, and other buildings, which constituted the approaches to the sacred edifices. Now, if Thebes had been a city with a hundred gates, there must surely have been a wall through which to construct them; and it is not unreasonable to suppose that the wall of so extensive and magnificent a city would have been built with stone, or at least that the frames or portals of the gates would have been of that material. Still no vestige of either gate or wall is to be seen; and as so many ruins of temples and their porticoes remain to this day, how is it that not one solitary gate, nor even fragment of the wall, is left? Under these circumstances, I do not think it an improbable conjecture, that it was the numerous porticos, pylons, &c., of the Theban temples, that obtained for her the boasted reputation of a hundred gates. That she vanquished and subdued many states, and that her inhabitants were proud of their warlike achievements, appears from the battles so frequently traced on the walls; but we nowhere observed Egyptian horsemen, the horsemen being always of the enemy's party in the act of flight, and looking back with dismay on the conquering Egyptians, who are invariably in chariots. Numerous as have been the researches amongst the ruins of Thebes, I suspect that many treasures of art still remain concealed: and if the English party are not prevented from digging, it is probable we shall be continually hearing of some new discoveries.
Friday, August 21.-We started early this morning for Cairo, having bargained with the reis to take us down for thirty piastres-fifteen shillings. The boat was laden with lentils for the pasha. We placed a few mats over-head for a shade, and found the cargo a good soft foundation whereon to put our beds; the sailors, in the boat, helping us in our cooking operations, we found we did as well without as with a servant.
Saturday, August 22.-This morning we stopped at Tentyra, and, as our reis said he should not start for an hour, we determined to revisit the