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dered at the first touch: we were, therefore, very careful in leaving what remained for the benefit of future travellers. A broken brass socket, for the pivot of a door to traverse on, was also found.
The extreme heat of the temple was such, that Mr. Beechey spoiled his drawing-book while only copying one of the groups, the perspiration having entirely soaked through it: it produces the same sensation and effects as the hottest vapour-bath. In the centre of the sanctuary is a bench with four sitting statues: the one on the right is Osiris, with the hawk's head and globe; the others are human figures: two have the crux ansata in their hand.
The eight standing figures of Osiris, 30 ft. high, which ornament the outer hall, and between which is the passage into the interior of the temple, are as well proportioned as they are highly finished the drapery reaches nearly half-way down to the knees, and is striped like that of the figures without. The features of the countenances are perfect, and they all have the hook and scourge (the usual emblems of Osiris) in their hands, which are crossed on the breast.
I shall now describe what, speaking comparatively, we may call the small temple of Abou-Simbel. The direction of the river here is W. S.W. and E.N.E. Both the temples are situated on the left bank, at the ends of the two mountains which form the valley, through which the sand which has buried the great temple found its passage both are cut out of the solid rock, which is of a sandy or calcareous nature. The easternmost and smallest appears to have been made before the other, as the style of the colossal statues which are sculptured in the front of it, are ruder than that of the large one, and have been cut in a less advanced state of the art. The front of the temple is not perpendicular, but sloping from the top to the bottom. Six square spaces are excavated in the surface, serving as niches to the same number of colossal figures, the remaining part being left in the form of buttresses projecting 10 ft. at the base
beyond the inside of the niches. The door is in the centre, with three erect figures, one a female (Isis), with a male figure on each side of her: these latter represent Osiris. On either side, between these colossal statues, are two figures of about 6 ft. high, which reach nearly to the knees of the former: those supporting the male figures appear to represent Horus, while the others near Isis are females. The space left in the centre, and in which the door is cut, is more than twice the breadth of the other projections between the figures, and slopes on the same plane with them for about onethird from the top: it then descends somewhat more perpendicularly; and in this lower plane the door is cut, without any other projection. The points of the projecting buttresses are covered with hieroglyphics; and a single line of them extends along the top of the niches for the whole breadth of the temple, of which it forms the ornamental summit. Immediately above the door is an offering to Osiris; and on each side of it are hieroglyphics as on the other projections: a line of serpents and globes surmounts the offering, similar to what is often met with over the doors of Egyptian temples. The height of the projecting buttresses nearest the door is 34 ft. 7 in.; taken in the angle that of the others is 38 ft., their projection at the base 10 ft., that of the door only 7 ft. 6 in.; the distance between each buttress, 8 ft. 3 in.; breadth of the buttresses, 4 ft. 7 in. The height of the female figures is 24 ft. 6 in., not including the head ornament, which reaches to the top of the buttress. The male figures are 25 ft, 8 in. high, and their head-dresses 4 ft. 10 in. The height of the doorway is 11 ft. 6 in.; width, 4 ft. 10 in.; the length of the passage into the temple, 12 ft. 9 in. The whole width of the ornamented front of the temple is 88 ft., and its height, in a perpendicular line, may be about 40 ft.
The interior of the temple is composed of three principal apartments; the first and largest supported by six pilasters, three on each side, (surmounted with the head of Isis in the
front,) is 36 ft. by 34; the space in the centre between the pilasters is 14 ft. 6 in., and they are 7 ft. 8 in. from the wall the distance between the pilasters 5 ft. 9 in.; their dimensions 3 ft. 7 in. by 3 ft. 3 in. The breadth of the second chamber 8 ft. 5 in.; its length is the same as the first, taken at right angles with the line of entrance: the sanctuary is 7 ft. 10 in. by 8 ft. 9 in.: on each side of the second chamber is a small side apartment 6 ft. square.
I shall describe the decorations of the interior rather minutely, as there is more uniformity, and evident allusion to the deity to whom the temple is dedicated (Isis), than is generally met with. The interior of the porch is ornamented on each side by an offering to isis from a human figure. Within the chamber, on each side of the entry, is a large figure having an axe in one hand, whilst with the other he grasps a bow, and holds a kneeling victim by the hair of the head. On either side are two human figures: that in front has a knife upheld, and appears to command the sacrifice; while that behind seems to preside over it with the lotus flower in her hand: the opposite side is the same, excepting that the figure commanding the sacrifice is Osiris. On the left, as you enter, the wall is embellished with,first, an offering to Isis; secondly, the initiation, by Jupiter Ammon and Osiris, of a young priest; thirdly, an offering by a female figure, of a small sistrum, surmounted by the head of Isis and the serpent, together with the lotus flower, to a male figure; fourthly, an offering to a male figure of a small sitting figure, with the crux ansata on its knees, which are raised up. On the right hand the wall is ornamented with, first, an offering of provisions to Osiris, with the scourge in his hand; secondly, an offering of the lotus flower and three water-pots, pouring water on other flowers, to Jupiter Ammon; thirdly, an offering to Isis of two small heads of that deity surmounting two short handles or staffs; fourthly, an offering to Osiris of two small waterAt the end, on one side of the door, is an ~ffering to Isis of the lotus;
and opposite is the same offering to a female figure. The inner chamber has offerings to Isis and Osiris, and the initiation of a priestess by two Isides; the sanctuary has a small figure, in alto-relievo, in a recess at the end.
Monday, August 4.-Early this morning we started on our return, and soon saw, on the eastern bank, Mahommed and Ali Cashief, together with the band of thieves that had attempted to plunder us. They hailed us, and asked if we had opened the temple, and how much money we had found in it. In the evening we called on Daoud Cashief, who protested his innocence of the transactions at Abou-Simbel, even before we had mentioned the subject. This was certainly not very wise in him; as nothing could tend more to prove his guilt: and, if further evidence were necessary, we saw amongst his train several of the principal spies and bullics that had annoyed us. It was, however, necessary to dissemble, and appear to credit him, as a contrary line of conduct could lead to no good; and, after receiving a present of a sheep, goat, and some bread, together with his promise to keep the temple open for Mr. Salt, we took our leave. When near Derry, we met Halleel crossing the water to be present at our interview with his brother, and thus get his share of anything else that could be squeezed out of us: he was, however, too late.
In the evening we arrived at Derry, and went to see the temple with candles. This temple is situated about a quarter of a mile from the town: it is cut in the solid rock, but is so much ruined that nothing perfect is to be seen. There has been a middling-sized hall, with eight square pilasters and four terms, with standing figures in altorelievo. The latter seem to form a sort of portico to the principal chamber. The eight outer pilasters have fallen; but those of the portico are perfect, with the exception of the terms, which have all been broken off. Within is the principal chamber, 17 paces by 16, supported on each side of the centre by three pilasters; this latter leads to the sanctuary, on each side of which
is a small chamber surrounded with benches, At the further end of the sanctuary are the marks of four sitting statues which have been chiselled off: they appear to have resembled those of the large temple of Abou-Simbel. In this temple the stucco and paint is imperfect, and the whole has a black and dismal appearance; but, to judge from the size and execution of the figures, &c., in intaglio, on the walls, it may once have been handsome. The dedication appears to have been to Osiris. There are boats, battles, sacrifices, &c., like those at Abou-Simbel.
We had just gone to bed this evening, when Halleel arrived. He sent us a present of some aqua vitæ, and a miserable sheep. All these presents are paid for at the rate of double their value.
daubed over with plaster and modern Greek paintings of the twelve apostles, saints, &c. Underneath this plaster, however, the ancient Egyptian figures and hieroglyphics, &c., in bas-relief, appear: they have been executed in a very superior style; and the colouring has been rich beyond description. There is a small chamber on each side of the sanctuary. The dedication is to Osiris. The sand has drifted into and nearly filled up the hall. Some modern sun-burnt brick ruins attached to the temple have probably been additions by the Greeks.
At noon we arrived at Sabour, and proceeded to inspect its temple, situated on the western bank, about 100 yards from the river side. It is built of calcareous stone, in a plain at the foot of the mountain, at present covered with sand. The approach to it is by an avenue of sphinxes, with two statues in a standing position at the end nearest the Nile, all of calcareous stone. the further end of the avenue is a pylon, with two fragments of ill-carved statues, which have been thrown down: they are all full-length figures, and much dilapidated. On each side of the entrance within is a peristyle space, with four terms on either side; these appear to form the hall of the temple, which, being filled with sand, cannot be entered. The masonry is here much ruined; and there is not one perfect figure to be found. We observed that the hieroglyphics on the back of the two statues, nearest the temple, were the same as those on the frieze of the
Tuesday, August 5. Early this morning Halleel came on board; when we told him, as we had his brother, that we had nothing left to bestow upon him, having given away everything we had to spare. All this while he was whispering to one of our sailors, asking, no doubt, if we had anything left, and whether it was true, that we had given nothing to his brother. He now examined attentively everything in the cabin; but as nothing was forthcoming, he took his leave, and we started also, glad to get rid of him and Derry too. It was here that poor Norden, eighty years ago, met with the treatment from Baram Cashief, which prevented his going farther up the river. This morning we visited the temple at Armada, and saw two ga-large temple at Abou-Simbel, with the zelles near it. This temple is built in the desert (at least it is a desert now), not far from the river, on the opposite side from Derry, and about one quarter of the way between the latter place and Koroskoff. It consists of a hall, supported by twelve pilasters and four pillars, in four rows of four each; but as a wall of intercolumniation surrounds it, the detached pilasters and pillars within the hall are only six in number. Beyond the hall is a small cross chamber, 9 paces by 3, and within that is the sanctuary, which is 8 paces by 3. The interior of the latter is
difference only of being written vertically instead of horizontally. These hieroglyphics occur on either side of the crux ansata, which occupies the centre of the frieze : on one side they are written from right to left, and on the other from left to right. The hieroglyphics on the upper part of Cleopatra's needles at Alexandria, are exactly the same; and we noticed similar characters on the two great obelisks at Luxor.
Towards the close of the evening we had another quarrel with Hassan, who drew his dagger ou Mr. Belzoni, utter
ing savage imprecations, and saying, that all who disbelieved in the prophet were dogs. We made a great effort to get him out of the boat; but the reis and crew adhered together so much, that we could not succeed. In this country it is difficult to chastise an insult; for should a traveller so far forget himself as to use a weapon against a Nubian, he would be sure to be sacrificed, as the whole country would rise against him, and escape would be impossible.* A pistol went off twice by accident in the boat during these unpleasant disputes; but, fortunately, did no harm; and Captain Irby had his hand much cut in wresting a dagger from Hassan, who, foaming with rage, was in the act of stabbing Mr. Belzoni. It is not a year ago, since a Russian was murdered a little above Derry: he was in company with another who escaped to Assuan; they were unfortunately unarmed. Our reis and one of the sailors quitted the boat in consequence of our last quarrel. Wednesday, August 6.—We started at dawn on our voyage. About seven the reis returned. He now wanted to land the statues and leave them behind. This we told him he should not do; and advised him to beware what tricks he played us, as we would bring him to an account at Assuan, where, at least, there is some sort of government. Our young mameluke joined us this morning, having been robbed of his money and the reed-raft which he had purchased. About noon we inspected the small temple at Offidena, which has been left in so unfinished a state, that it is difficult to make much out of it. All that is at present to be seen is a small peristyle hall, with fourteen pillars; but neither the columns, their capitals, nor the sides of the hall, are finished. The Greek Christians had converted this temple into a chapel. On the ruined wall of a detached building, there are three figures, evidently not Egyptian. They are in intaglio, and are either of ancient Greek or Roman workmanship. They
This part of the country has, however,
been since garrisoned and taken possession of by Mahommed Ali.
appear to represent an Egyptian, and a Grecian priest and priestess. In the same tablet is a figure of Isis, with Horus presenting her an offering.
The people came and crowded round us here, asking for backsheeish. As they demanded it in a very impertinent manner, we did not give them anything till we had explained to them that a more quiet mode of begging would have got them more money. We endeavoured here to purchase a statue, the same that we had attempted to buy on going up; but, after being detained about two hours, we were obliged to give it up.
In the evening we visited the temple at Dekki. The exterior and part of the interior of this temple have not been finished; but the basso-relievo in the interior bears every mark of having been executed by a skilful artist. Only one chamber, however, has been completed with stucco and painting. The whole building is on a small scale, but the plan is very neat; it is approached by a pylon, beyond which is a portico of two columns in front. Within this are three small but distinct chambers: the centre apartment is narrow, with a smaller one on each side. One of these has steps by which you may ascend to the top of the temple. The width of the building is narrower than that of the pylon, and a wall from the exterior of the latter surrounded it. The entrance of the pylon is covered with Greek inscriptions; amongst which, several commemorate the homage paid to the god Mercury, by Greek and Roman visitors; the latter under the reign of Tiberius Cæsar. This temple, like some others in Nubia, has been subsequently used as a Greek chapel, as appears by their daubed paintings Other ruins are scattered about near the temple: probably those of some small town.
Thursday, August 7.-We started at dawn, and visited the temple of Garbe Girshe. The natives here have a very bad character. Last year they murdered a soldier of the pasha's, and not having been punished for it, have become remarkably insolent.
Seeing us all armed, and not being numerous themselves, they asked for backsheeish in a quiet manner, and we gave them some. This temple is principally an excavation in the rock, but has been fronted by a built portico or peristyle hall; of which four terms on each side, and two pillars in front, remain in a mutilated state. But there have been many more of the latter; and probably it was approached by a flight of steps preceded by an avenue of sphinxes, fragments of which still remain. The excavated chambers have a black and dismal appearance, and the interior ones have become the habitation of bats. In plan it is not dissimilar to the great temple at AbouSimbel, but much smaller; and the sculpture is unusually bad and heavy. The first chamber is 19 paces by 18, and is supported by six terms, three on each side of the centre, with alto-relievo figures of Osiris in an erect posture; but, instead of the arms being across the breast, with the scourge in one hand and the hook in the other, as at Abou-Simbel, both the insignia are here in the right hand, which is uplifted, while the left hangs down: these are executed in a most heavy and unsightly manner. On either side of this chamber are four niches, in each of which are four alto-relievo figures. The second chamber is smaller, supported by two pilasters, one on each side of the centre. Beyond this is the sanctuary, which is small; the altar remains in it, and four sitting statues at the further end. There is a small chamber on each side of the sanctuary; and side apartments leading from the second chamber.
Towards sun-set we inspected the temple of Garbe Dendour. This is a small unfinished edifice. It is built with a small portico of two columns in front, and has two small chambers within it. The sanctuary at the back is an excavation in the rock, before which the temple is built. Before the building is a portal and a square space walled in, probably intended as a quay to protect the edifice from the river near which it stands-Garbe Merie. We passed this place without stopping,
there being nothing but the broken wall of a temple with hieroglyphics on it.
In the evening we landed at Kalapsche, and went up to see the temple. Here we found all the natives collected together, armed with their daggers, to dispute the entrance. We demanded the reason of their being assembled in such numbers, and what they wanted: they said they must be paid before we entered the temple. We asked the speaker if he meant that he himself was to be paid, or who it was that we were to give money to. They all cried out, that we must pay every one of them. Now, as there were about sixty, and others were arriving, we thought it a bad speculation, and explained to them that we cared very little about going into the temple, as we had already inspected it; but that, if they chose to let us enter, we would give them a reasonable present when we came out. While we were settling this, our janissary thought fit to pick a quarrel with the natives, abusing them all, calling them thieves, and saying we would enter the temple by force. In consequence of this, they all rushed on him with their drawn daggers, and had nearly wrenched his musket from him, when, thinking it high time, we flew to his rescue, and, after much struggling, succeeded in regaining him his arms. We were now glad to get to the boat, being well hooted as we went down; and, on our shoving off, they pelted us with stones. We fired a musket over their heads, to show them that we had ammunition. Our Greek servant told us, that, while we were absent, one villain had entered the boat with a drawn sword, and was proceeding to plunder it, when, conceiving that this was carrying things a little too far, he pointed a loaded gun at the fellow's head, with a threat that he would lay him dead on the spot unless he desisted. This timely firmness caused him to quit the bark; the crew all the while not interfering or saying a word. We commended the Greek for his presence of mind; but had not so much reason to be satisfied with the janissary, whose unseasonable