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skeleton forms, with fleshless ribs and limbs, who had left their graves to attend upon their monarch. It was, as it were, a darkened evil sun, with a surrounding of ghouls for satellites. Again that fearful scream was heard, the blazing tower shot up a huge column of smoke and flame far above the clouds, the next instant it subsided, the moon shone upon the walls, showing them to be in the same state as before that indescribable scene occurred, unchanged, uninjured by the fire, but the spectral revellers were gone, the nobles and their host (who had not even risen from his couch) were alone in the forest.

Next day, ere taking leave, the prince pressed for an explanation, but the old man declared that he only knew that a repetition of the last night's horrors took place on each anniversary of the death of the ancient lord of the territories, and urged the young man to seek in a purer faith some safeguard against the sins which make death terrible. The prince, arriving at the court in safety, related his adventures to the monarch his father, and one month afterwards Lord Dietnizt was despatched with a guard of soldiers to conduct the Christian hermit (for such we may safely assume him to have been) to the capital: they found the hut and the mystic earth mound, but the occupier was gone, and though they made careful search, they found him not.

By the Duke's command the mound was opened, and within it rested the partially decomposed form of an old man, wrapped in a long sable robe, and having a silver chain and cross about his neck. The young prince was then thoroughly convinced that his late preserver was indeed the visitant at the festal board, and doubtless sought instruction in the pure religion he had professed, which speedily bore fruit in himself.

Duke Ziemowit, shortly after his accession, introduced regular discipline into the Polish armies, and taught the soldiers either in victory or defeat to rely not only upon themselves but upon their fellows, and to seek mutual safety and support in vigorous and concentrated action. With an army thus trained he quickly forced his troublesome neighbours the Hungarians, the Russians, and the Moravians, both to respect his talents and to fear his prowess.

As he possessed no inordinate desire for conquest, and seeking only the welfare of his people, abstained from wantonly wasting either their blood or their treasure, he acquired in his lifetime the affections of his subjects, and died loved and revered by them.




1. "The Christian Passover," by the Editors of the 'Priest's Prayer Book.' Palmer.

2. "The Fast before Communion discussed and shown to be dispensable on the Principle of Canon Law." By the Rev. Newdigate Poyntz, M.A. don



3. "Fasting Communion: how binding in England by the Canons." By the Rev. H. T. Kingdon, M.A., late Vice-Principal of Salisbury Theological College. James Parker and Co.

THESE three Pamphlets may be said to give the measure of the controversy which is now agitating the minds of not a few, not only as to the right method of receiving Holy Communion, but (what is also implied in the controversy) as to the right time and method of celebrating it.

The Editors of the "Priest's Prayer Book" are of course well known as advocates of what may be called the most extreme views of Catholicism, and specially as enforcing under the pain of mortal sin, the duty of entire abstinence from food from the previous midnight before celebrating or receiving the Blessed Eucharist. And we suppose we are not wrong in saying that the object which they had in view in the publication of the little Tract which stands at the head of this Review, was to show that they had discovered a new answer to one of the chief objections which had been raised to the necessity at all times of a rigid Fast before Communion. The objection was that our LORD was not fasting when He instituted the Eucharist, nor His Apostles when they received it. But the authors of the Tract considered that they had found a passage showing that the Jews fasted on the eve of the Passover, from the early morning till the evening when that rite was celebrated.

But this view is entirely overthrown by Mr. Kingdon, who shows, we think indisputably, that the Fast did not begin till about three hours before the time at which the Passover was observed. The inference of course is undeniable, that, according to this analogy, there would be no objection to communicating three or four hours after breakfast.

2. The object of Mr. Poyntz's Pamphlet is to show that the obligation of fasting had been very much overstated, and particularly that it is in the power of the Bishop according to strict Canonical Law to dispense from the obligation.

3. Mr. Kingdon's reply is different. He denies indeed (though in the teeth of authorities to the contrary adduced by Mr. Poyntz) that a Bishop could dispense from an enactment of this nature. But he shows very conclusively that there is really no canonical authority binding the conscience to observe this rule of Fasting Communion. Mr. Poyntz had oddly enough undertaken to show that the obligation rested on the canons of one Council only which could be supposed to bind us in England (the other Councils which ruled it being local and unimportant.) That Council was the Council of Constance-which also ruled it to be heresy to give the Cup to the Laity! But further than this, Mr. Kingdon adduces writers of the highest eminence to show that Canons are not really binding, unless they are republished from time to time. The force of this argument may be seen by comparing the case of Fasting Communion with that of the Eucharistic Vestments. Both had fallen into abeyance-but let us mark the difference. Of the one the Faithful had heard absolutely nothing for more than three centuries, the other had been ordered in every successive edition of the Prayer Book.

We commend these pamphlets strongly to the perusal of our subscribers; and to ourselves it is no slight proof of the abundance of theological learning which exists among us, that two such able writers as Mr. Poyntz and Mr. Kingdon should be found occupying the humble position of assistant-curates, in two actually contiguous parishes, neither of whom we believe had before been known to literary fame. It can scarcely be matter of surprise when irreverence has so much abounded, and Bishops have given encouragement to the abomination of evening communions, that the spirits of zealous churchmen have been moved to make forcible protests against what they have seen around them. But they have yet to learn that in the end all exaggeration defeats its own object, and certainly unless these two pamphlets can be disposed of, however much, like ourselves, they may desire to advocate early Communion, persons will be without excuse who venture again to repeat what has been called the rigorist theory concerning the necessity of an absolute fast in all cases before communicating, as a Rule binding on the consciences of English Churchmen.

There are a few remarks, in Mr. Kingdon's pamphlet, not connected immediately with the subject in hand, which we hope in another edition may be withdrawn.



WE cannot allow the departure of this most faithful and devoted priest of GOD to pass unnoticed in our pages-for although he had not that special connection with this periodical which many of his contemporaries in the priesthood had as contributors and otherwise, yet he was an integral part of that great movement to which it owes its existence in common with all other efforts for the spread of Church principles, and he was one of those who gladly hailed its appearance for that purpose.

He who has just passed to his well earned rest, has played a far more important part in the great Church Revival than his own quiet and unassuming mode of action could ever have led him to anticipate, chiefly from the calm steadfastness with which through many startling changes he held to the ground on which he first took his stand in times of exceeding difficulty. He stood in the forefront of the battle then along with those, few in number but strong in courage and devotion— whose honoured names will live for ever in the annals of this century as the pioneers of Catholic Truth in our own land. The majority of these his brethren have gone home before him, but some, thank GOD, are still with us, and they alone can appreciate the intensity of the struggle which ushered in the dawn of a purer faith amongst us. They can remember what the men of this generation, with all their greater privileges, can never know, the charm of that special fragrance of sanctity and pure devotion, which seemed to hang around the little dim quiet Margaret Chapel, out of which have sprung some of the most glorious fruits of that revival of which it was one of the earliest shrines. It was in connection with this church that Mr. Richards was first known, as the steady uncompromising catholic which he has continued to be, through all the eventful years which have elapsed since then. Having served under Mr. Dodsworth and Mr. Oakeley as curate, he succeeded the latter in the incumbency, and remained in the same position to the last, with only this difference, that he had seen his patient perseverance crowned by the substitution of the splendid church of All Saints for the unpretending little building in which he first strove to show forth the Catholic Faith in its fulness. As a devoted hard-working priest, as a guide of souls, and in an unostentatious manner as a devotional writer, we might speak of him at length; but in our brief space we can only touch on a few of the most marked fruits of his career. To him is due the honour of having been the first

to restore the Daily Sacrifice to the Church of England since the days when it was suspended in the reign of Elizabeth. He was also one of

the first to give practical aid to the revival of the Religious Life in England. The sisterhood of All Saints', which owes its existence and its rapid developement to his fostering care, was founded almost contemporaneously with the Institution at Devonport, which claims to be actually the first, while it has gone far beyond that community in the extent and value of its work. Nurses trained by these sisters ministered to Mr. Richards in his last hours, and the widespread anxiety and regret which was manifested in all parts of the country at the news of his dangerous illness, testified to the influence he had acquired by his holy and consistent life as a priest.

The good effect produced in an ever widening sphere by the services at All Saints' is a matter of notoriety, and it is earnestly to be hoped that his removal to the unseen portion of the Church, will not be allowed to check so great a work, but that others as faithful and zealous may be found to enter into his labours and bring them to full fruition.

Mr. Richards had been in failing health for some time—an attack of paralysis, from which he rallied temporarily, had made active work impossible to him, and he was perfectly aware that the end was near, and calmly waited for his final summons in patient hope: on Thursday the 12th he was again seized with paralysis, which for a time rendered him insensible, but on Saturday full consciousness was happily restored, when he received the last rites of the Church, and remained sinking gently till about half-past seven on the evening of Monday the 16th, when he passed away in painless peace.


[The Editor is not responsible for the opinions of the Correspondents.]

To the Editor of the Churchman's Companion.

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